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To examine the strengths and opportunities for improvement of current home care education practices to inform the development of the Home Care for Heart Health intervention, and to develop a web-based intervention for parents and clinicians with complimentary print materials that could provide the right education at the right time to foster a safer transition from hospital to home.
An inter-professional focus group of parents, clinicians, and designers was formed to co-create a home care education intervention for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and their care team. We used the Integrated New Product Development process model created by Jonathon Cagan and Craig Vogel at Carnegie Mellon University to develop the intervention. This process model is a way of thinking that combines horizontal and inter-disciplinary teams, stakeholder-centric focus, and a system of qualitative discovery and development evolving towards quantitative methods of refinement.
Our team developed the Home Care for Heart Health intervention. The evidenced-based intervention includes a quick reference guide for parents of children with CHD, an accompanying app, family-friendly pathways, and clinician education.
Using an inter-professional approach, our team of clinicians, parents, and design experts were able to co-create a clinician–parent home care education intervention with broad application and lifelong relevance to the Congenital Heart Disease Community.
Our intervention has the potential to be used as a model for other home care education interventions for parents of children with chronic illnesses.
Detecting gastrointestinal (GI) infection transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England is complicated by a lack of routine sexual behavioural data. We investigated whether gender distributions might generate signals for increased transmission of GI pathogens among MSM. We examined the percentage male of laboratory-confirmed patient-episodes for patients with no known travel history for 10 GI infections of public health interest in England between 2003 and 2013, stratified by age and region. An adult male excess was observed for Shigella spp. (annual maximum 71% male); most pronounced for those aged 25–49 years and living in London, Brighton and Manchester. An adult male excess was observed every year for Entamoeba histolytica (range 59.8–76.1% male), Giardia (53.1–57.6%) and Campylobacter (52.1–53.5%) and for a minority of years for hepatitis A (max. 69.8%) and typhoidal salmonella (max. 65.7%). This approach generated a signal for excess male episodes for six GI pathogens, including a characterised outbreak of Shigella among MSM. Stratified analyses by geography and age group were consistent with MSM transmission for Shigella. Optimisation and routine application of this technique by public health authorities elsewhere might help identify potential GI infection outbreaks due to sexual transmission among MSM, for further investigation.
Bacterial cultures exposed to iron-doped apatite nanoparticles (IDANPs) prior to the introduction of antagonistic viruses experience up to 2.3 times the bacterial destruction observed in control cultures. Maximum antibacterial activity of these bacteria-specific viruses, or phage, occurs after bacterial cultures have been exposed to IDANPs for 1 hr prior to phage introduction, demonstrating that IDANP-assisted phage therapy would not be straight forward, but would instead require controlled time release of IDANPs and phage. These findings motivated the design of an electrospun nanofiber mesh treatment delivery system that allows burst release of IDANPs, followed by slow, consistent release of phage for treatment of topical bacterial infections. IDANPs resemble hydroxyapatite, a biocompatible mineral analogous to the inorganic constituent of mammalian bone, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for many biomedical purposes. The composite nanofiber mesh was designed for IDANP-assisted phage therapy treatment of topical wounds and consists of a superficial, rapid release layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) fibers doped with IDANPs, followed by inner, coaxial polycaprolactone / polyethylene glycol (PCL/PEG) blended polymer fiber layer for slower phage delivery. Our investigations have established that IDANP-doped PEO fibers are effective vehicles for dissemination of IDANPs for bacterial exposure and resultant increased bacterial death by phage. In this work, slower delivery of the phage behind IDANPs was accomplished using coaxial, electrospun fibers composed of PCL/PEG polymer blend.
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely used to estimate HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM). Mathematical models that are calibrated to these data may be compromised if they fail to account for selection biases in RDS surveys. To quantify the potential extent of this bias, an agent-based model of HIV in South Africa was calibrated to HIV prevalence and sexual behaviour data from South African studies of MSM, first reweighting the modelled MSM population to match the younger age profile of the RDS surveys (age-adjusted analysis) and then without reweighting (unadjusted analysis). The model estimated a median HIV prevalence in South African MSM in 2015 of 34.6% (inter-quartile range (IQR): 31.4–37.2%) in the age-adjusted analysis, compared with 26.1% (IQR: 24.1–28.4%) in the unadjusted analysis. The median lifetime risk of acquiring HIV in exclusively homosexual men was 88% (IQR: 82–92%) in the age-adjusted analysis, compared with 76% (IQR: 64–85%) in the unadjusted analysis. These results suggest that RDS studies may under-estimate the exceptionally high HIV prevalence rates in South African MSM because of over-sampling of younger MSM. Mathematical models that are calibrated to these data need to control for likely over-sampling of younger MSM.
There are about 900,000 horses kept in the UK for leisure and a further 65,000 kept professionally (British Horse Society, 2003). Altogether about 800,000 ha are utilised for grazing and feeding horses, making the equine industry the second largest in the UK land based sector, after agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to review the present information on the management of grassland for horse grazing and for conserved forage, to identify some current issues and to postulate some areas for future research and development.
Maximizing the contribution made by grazing to the nutrition of the horse is a reasonable goal if economy is the main priority. Even if this is not the case, horses have a need to satisfy their natural instinct to graze. The deterioration of poorly managed grassland associated with equine enterprises is well documented (Odberg and Francis–Smith, 1976, and Judd et al., 2001). Horse grazing differs from grazing by cattle and sheep, in particular in the way that they select species and in the spatial pattern of their grazing.
To summarize ways that networks of community-based organizations (CBO), in partnership with public health departments, contribute to community recovery from disaster.
The study was conducted using an online survey administered one and 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to the partnership networks of 369 CBO and the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The survey assessed the structure and durability of networks, how they were influenced by storm damage, and whether more connected networks were associated with better recovery outcomes.
During response and recovery, CBOs provide an array of critical public health services often outside their usual scope. New CBO partnerships were formed to support recovery, particularly in severely impacted areas. CBOs that were more connected to other CBOs and were part of a long-term recovery committee reported greater impacts on the community; however, a partnership with the local health department was not associated with recovery impacts.
CBO partners are flexible in their scope of services, and CBO partnerships often emerge in areas with the greatest storm damage, and subsequently the greatest community needs. National policies will advance if they account for the dynamic and emergent nature of these partnerships and their contributions, and clarify the role of government partners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:635–643)
Near infrared (2 micron) emission lines from molecular hydrogen provide a powerful probe of the morphology and energetics of outflows associated with stellar birth. The H2 emission regions trace the location of shock waves formed when the high velocity outflow from young stars encounters dense quiescent gas. Since H2 is the dominant coolant of the hot post-shock molecular gas, the H2 lines provide a measure of the fraction of the total mechanical luminosity radiated away from the cloud.
VLBI observations of stellar masers provide important constraints on models for maser excitation and for the dynamics and physical conditions in circumstellar envelopes. The spatial distribution and apparent sizes of Si0 masers toward several late type variable stars and toward the star-forming region in Orion have been measured using the 75 km baseline between the 37 m telescope of Haystack Observatory and the 14 m telescope of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. The fringe spacing is 0.02 arcsec and the transitions observed were the v = 1, J = 1 - 0 and v = 2, J = 1 - 0 lines at 43 GHz. The data were obtained in September 1979 and April 1982.
Several studies have suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may enhance aspects of social communication in autism. Little is known, however, about its effects on nonsocial manifestations, such as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In the empathizing–systemizing theory of autism, social deficits are described along the continuum of empathizing ability, whereas nonsocial aspects are characterized in terms of an increased preference for patterned or rule-based systems, called systemizing. We therefore developed an automated eye-tracking task to test whether children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched controls display a visual preference for more highly organized and structured (systemized) real-life images. Then, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of intranasal oxytocin on systemizing preferences in 16 male children with ASD, compared with 16 matched controls. Participants viewed 14 slides, each containing four related pictures (e.g., of people, animals, scenes, or objects) that differed primarily on the degree of systemizing. Visual systemizing preference was defined in terms of the fixation time and count for each image. Unlike control subjects who showed no gaze preference, individuals with ASD preferred to fixate on more highly systemized pictures. Intranasal oxytocin eliminated this preference in ASD participants, who now showed a similar response to control subjects on placebo. In contrast, control participants increased their visual preference for more systemized images after receiving oxytocin versus placebo. These results suggest that, in addition to its effects on social communication, oxytocin may play a role in some of the nonsocial manifestations of autism.
Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.
We have investigated the physical properties of molecular clouds which are presumably interacting with the G359.54+0.18 Nonthermal Filaments and an associated H ii region east of the filaments (Staguhn et al., 1996). The sub-mm spectra of 12CO(3-2) were observed with the KOSMA 3 m telescope, while the 490 GHz [C i] 3P1 →3P0 observations were made with the AST/RO 1.7 m sub-mm telescope. Fig. 1 shows channel maps of the integrated CO and [C i] line intensities in the velocity range of the recombination line observed towards the nearby H ii region. This H ii region is traced by the VLA 5 GHz continuum observations which are shown as contours in the central parts of the maps. The G359.54+0.18 Nonthermal Filaments, situated further to the west, appear to be morphologically associated with the H ii region. The [C i] emission of the molecular cloud east of the filaments which is kinematically linked to the H ii region is anti-correlated with the molecular line emission over a large angular extent. It is unlikely that the large morphological differences between [C i] and CO in this region can be explained exclusively by a high abundance of neutral carbon in the surface regions of dense molecular clumps, as is usually the case in PDR regions near the Sun.
Item response theory (IRT) analyses of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other psychological disorders are a predominant method for assessing overall and individual criterion severity for psychiatric diagnosis. However, no investigation has established the consistency of the relative criteria severities across different samples.
PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and ProQuest databases were queried for entries relating to alcohol use and IRT. Study data were extracted using a standardized data entry sheet. Consistency of reported criteria severities across studies was analysed using generalizability theory to estimate generalized intraclass correlations (ICCs).
A total of 451 citations were screened and 34 papers (30 unique samples) included in the research synthesis. The AUD criteria set exhibited low consistency in the ordering of criteria using both traditional [ICC = 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.56] and generalized (ICC = 0.18, 95% CI 0.15–0.21) approaches. These results were partially accounted for by previously studied factors such as age and type of sample (e.g. clinical v. community), but the largest source of unreliability was the diagnostic instrument employed.
Despite the robust finding of unidimensional structure of AUDs, inconsistency in the relative severities across studies suggests low replicability, challenging the generalizability of findings from any given study. Explicit modeling of well-studied factors like age and sample type is essential and increases the generalizability of findings. Moreover, while the development of structured diagnostic interviews is considered a landmark contribution toward improving psychiatric research, variability across instruments has not been fully appreciated and is substantial.
The incidence of psychotic disorders varies between geographical areas and it has been hypothesized that neighbourhood-level factors may influence this variation. It is also plausible that the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with neighbourhood characteristics. The aims of this study were to determine whether the incidence of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the DUP are associated with the level of social deprivation, fragmentation, social capital and population density.
All individuals with a FEP from a geographical defined catchment area over a 5-year period were included. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for each neighbourhood factor.
A total of 292 cases of FEP were included in the study and 45% had a diagnosis of a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. The age standardized incidence rate of FEP in the most deprived area was 72.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.4–162.7] per 100 000 person-years compared with 21.5 (95% CI 17.6–26.0) per 100 000 person-years in the most affluent areas. This represents a 3.4-fold increase in FEP incidence in the most deprived areas. The incidence of FEP was also increased in neighbourhoods that were more socially fragmented [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.40, 95% CI 1.05–5.51, p = 0.04] and there was a trend for the incidence to be increased in neighbourhoods with lower social capital (IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.99–2.06, p = 0.05). The median DUP was 4 months and was higher in more socially fragmented neighbourhoods.
The incidence of psychotic disorders is related to neighbourhood factors and it may be useful to consider neighbourhood factors when allocating resources for early intervention services.
In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.