Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
Species that belong to the Aphidius eadyi group have been used as biocontrol agents against Acyrthosiphon pisum worldwide. However, despite their extensive use, there are still gaps in our knowledge about their taxonomy and distribution. In this study, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach by combining genetic analyses (mtDNA COI barcoding) with standard morphological analyses and geometric morphometrics of forewing shape. We identified three species within the A. eadyi species group, viz., A. smithi, A. eadyi and A. banksae. Genetic separation of all three species was confirmed, with mean genetic distances between species ranging from 5 to 7.4%. The following morphological characters were determined as the most important for separating species of the A. eadyi group: number and shape of costulae on the anterolateral part of the petiole, shape of the central areola on the propodeum, and shape and venation of the forewings. The differences in wing shape of all three species were statistically significant, but with some overlapping. We identified A. banksae as a widely distributed pea aphid parasitoid, whose known range covers most of the western Palaearctic (from the UK to Israel). Aphidius banksae is diagnosed and redescribed.
Doppler-effect laser equipment was successfully employed in Antarctica in 1969-70 to measure the rate of ice-sheet motion. The method is based on measuring differential beat frequency generated by the interaction of the direct pulse and its echo. A He-Ne laser with the wavelength of 6 328 Â was used in the 15th Soviet Antarctic Expedition. The paper gives detailed results of the measurements along with a description of the equipment used and of the observational procedures. A new modified version of the equipment was made ready for 1971-72 Antarctic season, and was used in the 18th Soviet Antarctic Expedition in the vicinity of Mirny station. New results are also discussed. Analysis of all available data makes it possible to believe that the movement of the ice sheet is irregular with occasional stops. The progressive motion of the ice sheet is accompanied by strain oscillations.
We carried out a pivot experiment to select distant luminous late-type stars on the basis on their 2MASS and GLIMPSE photometry. Low-resolution infrared spectra enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) of their CO band-heads at 2.293 μm, and to confirm an extraordinarily high detection rate of red supergiants (RSGs), i.e. 61% (Messineo et al. (2016)).
Die Gasentladung im Deuterium bei Stromstärken bis zu 700 tausend Ampere im magnetischen Längsfelde bis zu 12000 Oersted wurde untersucht. Die Einwirkung des Feldes auf den Verlauf der Entladung wurde festgestellt und eine Zunahme des Magnetfeldes im Innern der Entladungssäule entdeckt. Eine Bewertung der Plasmaleitfähigkeit und der Ionisierungszahl wird gegeben.
Two methods are proposed for describing the distributions of the triplet configuration parameters characterizing a tendency to alignment and hierarchy: (1) obtaining a representative sample of configurations and determining its statistical parameters (moments and percentages); and (2) dividing the region of possible configurations of triple systems (Agekian and Anosova, 1967) into a set of segments and finding the probabilities for the configurations to find themselves in each of them.
This paper is devoted to an experimental investigation of receptivity of a laminar swept-wing boundary layer due to scattering of free-stream vortices on localized (in the streamwise direction) surface vibrations. The experiments were conducted under completely controlled disturbance conditions by means of a hot-wire anemometer on a model of a swept wing with a sweep angle of 25°. Both the free-stream vortices and the surface vibrations were generated by disturbance sources; their frequency–wavenumber spectra were measured thoroughly. The free-stream vorticity vectors were directed perpendicular to the incident-flow velocity vector and parallel to the swept-wing-model surface. The linearity of the receptivity mechanism under investigation (in a sense that the corresponding receptivity coefficients are independent of the disturbances amplitudes) has been checked carefully. The main goal of this experiment was to estimate the vibration-vortex receptivity coefficients as functions of the disturbance frequency, spanwise wavenumber and vortex offset parameter. This goal has been attained. Being defined in Fourier space, the obtained receptivity coefficients are independent of the specific surface vibration shape and can be used for verification of various receptivity theories.
AlGaN-based quantum well (QW) heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on c-Al2O3 substrates have been studied. The high-temperature (785 °C) synthesis of AlN buffer layer nucleated by a migration-enhanced epitaxy and including several ultrathin GaN interlayers was the optimum approach for lowering the threading dislocations density down to 108–109 cm−2. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) has revealed the step-like roughness of the AlN/Al2O3 interface. Also, the formation of Al-rich barriers induced by temperature-modulated epitaxy and the spontaneous compositional disordering have been found in the AlxGa1−xN (x > 0.6) barrier layers. The origin of these phenomena and their influence on parameters of the mid-UV stimulated emission observed in the QW heterostructures were discussed. The fine structure of the QWs formed by a submonolayer digital alloying technique has been displayed by HAADF STEM, and optical properties of the QW structures were studied by temperature- and time-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy.
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
In this work we propose a method for analysis of postsurgical haemodynamics after femoral
artery treatment of occlusive vascular disease. Patient specific reconstruction algorithm
of 1D core network based on MRI data is proposed as a tool for such analysis. Along with
presurgical ultrasound data fitting it provides effective personalizing predictive method
that is validated with clinical observations.
We have identified the following three taxa related to the Aphidius colemani species group, which are important biological control agents: Aphidius colemani, Aphidius transcaspicus and Aphidius platensis. Using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene and geometric morphometric analysis of the forewing shape, we have explored the genetic structure and morphological variability of the A. colemani group from different aphid host/plant associations covering a wide distribution area. The topology of the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood trees were identical with 98–100% bootstrap support, clustering A. colemani, A. platensis and A. transcaspicus into separate species. The distances among the taxa ranged from 2.2 to 4.7%, which is a common rate for the between-species divergence within the subfamily Aphidiinae. Differences in the shape of the forewing investigated within the biotypes of A. colemani group are congruent with their genetic diversification. Both A. platensis and A. colemani share a common host range pattern, and it would be interesting to estimate and compare the role of these two species in future biological control strategies against aphids of economic importance. Our results indicate that ‘genetic screening’ is a reliable approach for identification within the A. colemani group. The high variation in the wing shape among species, including a significant divergence in the wing shape among specimens that emerged from different hosts, makes the forewing shape and wing venation less reliable for species determination. Aphidius platensis is diagnostified and redescribed, and the key for the A. colemani group is presented.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
The present experimental study is devoted to examination of the vortex receptivity mechanism associated with excitation of unsteady cross-flow (CF) waves due to scattering of unsteady free-stream vortices on localized steady surface non-uniformities (roughness). The measurements are carried out in a low-turbulence wind tunnel by means of a hot-wire anemometer in a boundary layer developing over a
swept-wing model. The harmonic-in-time free-stream vortices were excited by a thin vibrating wire located upstream of the experimental-model leading edge and represented a kind of small-amplitude von Kármán vortex street with spanwise orientation of the generated instantaneous vorticity vectors. The controlled roughness elements (the so-called ‘phased roughness’) were placed on the model surface. This roughness had a special shape, which provided excitation of CF-waves having basically some predetermined (required) spanwise wavenumbers. The linearity of the stability and receptivity mechanisms under study was checked accurately by means of variation of both the free-stream-vortex amplitude and the surface roughness height. These experiments were directed to obtaining the amplitudes and phases of the vortex-roughness receptivity coefficients for a number of vortex disturbance frequencies. The vortex street position with respect to the model surface (the vortex offset parameter) was also varied. The receptivity characteristics obtained experimentally in Fourier space are independent of the particular roughness shape, and can be used for validation of receptivity theories.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.