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The Northern Ireland beef herd currently incorporates a very diverse range of genotypes which produces a very varied product in terms of carcass weight, fatness and conformation (Kirkland et al., 2004). However, factors other than genotype may also influence the expression of maternal traits and progeny carcass characteristics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dam conformation, irrespective of genotype, on dystocia and progeny carcass traits.
The suckler beef industry in Northern Ireland comprises many differing dam breeds and breed crosses. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of dam breed on parameters such as carcass weight, fatness and conformation, and on factors affecting management of the herd (e.g. dystocia and fertility). The latter are particularly important in view of the increasing number of part time beef farmers in Northern Ireland. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dam breed on production characteristics of the suckler herd in Northern Ireland.
We provide detailed contextual information on 25 14C dates for unusually well-preserved archaeological and paleontological remains from Daisy Cave. Paleontological materials, including faunal and floral remains, have been recovered from deposits spanning roughly the past 16,000 yr, while archaeological materials date back to ca. 10,500 BP. Multidisciplinary investigations at the site provide a detailed record of environmental and cultural changes on San Miguel Island during this time period. This record includes evidence for the local or regional extinction of a number of animal species, as well as some of the earliest evidence for the human use of boats and other maritime activities in the Americas. Data from Daisy Cave contribute to a growing body of evidence that Paleoindians had adapted to a wide variety of New World environments prior to 10,000 PB. Analysis of shell-charcoal pairs, along with isotopic analysis of associated marine shells, supports the general validity of marine shell dating, but also provides evidence for temporal fluctuations in the reservoir effect within the Santa Barbara Channel region.
Newell & Shanks' (N&S's) conceptualization of the unconscious is overly restrictive, compared to standard social psychological accounts. The dichotomy between distal and proximal cues is a weak point in their argument and does not circumvent the existence of unconscious influences on decision making. Evidence from moral and developmental psychology indicates that decision making results from a dynamic mixture of conscious and unconscious processes.
A variety of frequently encountered clinical problems lend themselves readily to investigation by analytical electron microscopy. e.g., a combination of scanning or transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. The most common application is identification of xenobiotics or exogenous substances, such as localization and quantitation of inorganic particulates in lung tissues in patients with pneumoconiosis; identification of foreign materials within granulomas; and analysis of foreign bodies. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) is also useful in the study of tissue reactions to various surgical implants of foreign materials. A variety of metals and other elements may be detected with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, including copper in tissues of patients with Wilson’s disease, thorium and gadolinium in patients injected with radiographic contrast agents (Figure 1), or gold in patients treated with long-term chrysotherapy. Endogenous particulates such as urinary calculi (Figure 2), gallstones, intraarticular and periarticular crystalline deposits in patients with rheumatic disease, dystrophic or metastatic calcifications, and hemosiderin may be analyzed rapidly and efficiently by means of EDX. Certain organometallic drugs such as amiodarone (iodine) or sodium stibogluconate (antimony) may also be detected in human tissues. Analytical electron microscopy has been a useful adjunct to forensic pathology for many years in diverse areas such as identification of trace evidence constituents or detection of arsenic or lead in victims with heavy metal poisoning. The detailed elucidation of anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic conditions provided by analytical electron microscopy is a useful diagnostic and investigative tool in clinical medicine; the analytical results often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or medicolegal implications. This imaging technology should grow in utility in the future as it is complemented by other techniques such as mass spectrometry, and laser Raman and infrared microspectroscopy.
Common sources of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection have been identified by investigating outbreaks and by case-control studies of sporadic infections. We conducted an analysis to attribute STEC O157 infections ascertained in 1996 and 1999 by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) to sources. Multivariable models from two case-control studies conducted in FoodNet and outbreak investigations that occurred during the study years were used to calculate the annual number of infections attributable to six sources. Using the results of the outbreak investigations alone, 27% and 15% of infections were attributed to a source in 1996 and 1999, respectively. Combining information from both data sources, 65% of infections in 1996 and 34% of infections in 1999 were attributed. The results suggest that methods to incorporate data from multiple surveillance systems and over several years are needed to improve estimation of the number of illnesses attributable to exposure sources.
The play has given rise to diverse interpretations. The greatest divergence of opinion is about the attitude of Sophocles to the matricidal vengeance. At one extreme we have a robust Homeric Sophocles, untroubled by the squeamishness of Aeschylus; at the other, an Aeschylean sensitiveness to the moral implications of the vengeance and a presumption that the Furies are only waiting for the play to end to begin their pursuit of Orestes. Adherents of the former view can point to certain epic features which Sophocles has introduced, but the constant reminiscences of the Oresteia are far more striking. This paper assumes (what will be in part substantiated) that Sophocles wrote with the Oresteia constantly in mind and expected the better-educated among his audience to be reminded of it. It will be concerned particularly with the Sophoclean treatment of the Furies and will suggest that this is of fundamental importance to the interpretation of the play.
An extensive reed bed on the north shore of the inner Tay Estuary is briefly described. Studies in the summers of 1975, 1976 and 1978 showed it to comprise monodominant stands of Phragmites communis Trin. The standing crop of shoots was sampled at the end of the season of vegetative growth and analysed by simple biometrical methods. Certain important spatial and architectural characteristics of the community varied in a regular manner with position in the bed. Estimates of the above ground productivity of intact stands ranged from 100 to 150 tonnes/ha in a poor growing season. Commercial harvesting operations, conducted since 1975, produced an immediate and consistent decrease in shoot stature, apparently followed by a slow increase in density and productivity. The behaviour of the downshore edge of the bed and the details of its annual development above and below ground require further study.
Mires are terrestrial ecosystems which conserve organic production in the form of peat because their soils are waterlogged. Scotland's damp climate makes it rich in mires, with fens, raised mires and blanket mires occurring widely. Intact examples are mostly treeless due to wind exposure. They have two functional layers of soil: a shallow acrotelm overlying the catotelm or peat deposit proper. The acrotelm is the main region of diagenesis and contains the water table, which lies close to the surface for most of the time. Evapotranspiration depends on water table depth and surface vegetation. In the catotelm, water transmission is described by Darcy's law with sufficient exactness to allow prediction of the water table profile. An analysis of seepage using Dupuit–Forchheimer theory predicts a hemi-elliptical profile whose curvature is governed by the water balance in dry years and which, in its turn, closely controls the overall shape of the mire. Water flow is more rapid in the acrotelm, where it creates a regular series of different soil physical regimes which are linked with distinct combinations of surface topography and vegetation arranged sequentially from the centre of a mire to its edge. Such regular arrangements are most clearly seen in the Flowe Country of E Sutherland and Caithness. Acrotelm structure also permits variation in flow rate with depth, so that the amplitude of water table oscillations is narrowly confined and the mire thus protected against both desiccation and sheet flow.
To determine the differences in myelination between the human recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve.
Fifteen confirmed laryngeal nerve specimens were harvested from five cadavers. Cross-sections were examined under a photomicroscope and morphometric analysis performed.
There was a significantly greater number of myelinated fibres than unmyelinated fibres, in both the recurrent laryngeal nerve (p = 0.018) and the superior laryngeal nerve (p = 0.012). There was a significantly greater number of myelinated fibres in the superior laryngeal nerve, compared with the recurrent laryngeal nerve (p = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference in the number of unmyelinated fibres, comparing the two nerves (p = 0.116).
These findings support those of previous studies, and provide further evidence against the historical plexus theory of laryngeal nerve morphology. The differences in the degree of myelination, both within and between the human laryngeal nerves, may have clinical consequence regarding recovery of function following nerve injury.
Implantation with 400 keV Ag or Cu ions improves the near-surface microstructural quality and reflectance of diamond turned and mechanically polished flat copper laser mirrors. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is sensitive to changes in either the microscopic surface roughness, or in the nearsurface substrate void fraction, and both parameters are observed to change upon implantation. Substrate density as a function of ion fluence peaks at about 5 × 10 15cm-2. Low energy (300 eV) Ar ion implantation can cause either a reduction or increase in microscopic surface roughness, depending on fluence.
Variable Angle of incidence Spectroscopie Ellipsometry (VASE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (XTEM), are used to measure heterojunction layer thicknesses in an AlGaAs/GaAs sample. All three techniques yield the same thickness values within error limits.
High energy Si implantation into GaAs is of interest for the fabrication of fully implanted monolithic microwave integrated circuits. 30Si has been implanted into LEC GaAs at energies of 1, 2, 4, and 6 MeV. We have measured atomic concentration profiles using SIMS and carrier concentration profiles using an electrolytic CV procedure. Theoretical atomic profiles have been calculated using TRIM-86. Excellent SIMS dynamic range and low background (<1014/cm3) was achieved for the profiles by the use of 30Si. The range statistics and profile shape factors: Rm, Rp, ΔRp, skewness (Y1), kurtosis (B2), and maximum Si density (Nmax) have been determined from the SIMS data by applying a Pearson IV computer fitting routine. The first two moments (Rp and ΔRp) were also obtained from the carrier profiles and the theoretical profiles. The range and standard deviation obtained from each profile have a maximum difference of only 15%, and the difference is usually less than 10%. This is less than the mutual experimental uncertainty of 17%. The samples were activated using a furnace anneal (800°C, 15 min) with a Si3N4 cap and using rapid thermal anneal (1000°C, 10s) with and without a Si3N4 cap. No redistribution of Si was observed for any of the anneal conditions within experimental error.
Depth profiling of hydrogen in polymeric materials poses special problems. Backscattering methods are ruled out because of kinematics. Nuclear reaction methods are undesirable because small reaction cross sections necessitate large fluences of high mass projectiles and result in unacceptable levels of radiation damage. We have used a helium-induced proton-recoil technique with 3 MeV 4He particles to measure the hydrogen distribution in pristine and ion-implanted polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. The incident 4He particles stopped in the 25 micron PVDF films while the recoiling protons were detected after passing through the polymer film. Large changes in the hydrogen content of PVDF films implanted with modest fluences of 6 MeV carbon, oxygen and nickel ions were observed.
Irradiation with high energy heavy ion beams has been investigated as a technique for improving the quality of highly reflecting metallic surfaces to be used as laser mirrors. Properties such as reflectivity, corrosion resistance, film bonding, and threshold to laser surface damage have been examined. Modifications of composition and microstructure of the material associated with the heavy ion irradiation have been measured with RBS, TEM, SEM, Auger, and ESCA. Reflectivity and extinction coefficient measurements were made using ellipsometry techniques. Observations indicate that keV heavy ion irradiations in the fluence range of 1015 to 1016 cm−2 produce significant surface smoothing. Additionally, MeV implants of heavy ions into films of Cu, Ag, Au and Al deposited on molybdenum substrates resulted in improvements to both tarnish resistance and structural bonding integrity.
In the microcrystalline regime, the behavior of grain boundary-controlled electroceramics is well described by the “brick layer model” (BLM). In the nanocrystalline regime, however, grain boundary layers can represent a significant volume fraction of the overall microstructure and simple layer models are no longer valid. This work describes the development of a pixel-based finite-difference approach to treat a “nested cube model” (NCM), which more accurately calculates the current distribution in polycrystalline ceramics when grain core and grain boundary dimensions become comparable. Furthermore, the NCM approaches layer model behavior as the volume fraction of grain cores approaches unity (thin boundary layers) and it matches standard effective medium treatments as the volume fraction of grain cores approaches zero. Therefore, the NCM can model electroceramic behavior at all grain sizes, from nanoscale to microscale. It can also be modified to handle multi-layer grain boundaries and property gradient effects (e.g., due to space charge regions).
Films of AlN were grown on MgO(100), Al2O3, and Si under vacuum pressure (10-3 to 10-4 Torr) at different substrate temperatures. They were examined ex situ with infrared reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Highly oriented smooth films were grown at film thicknesses below 1 μm. Thicker films showed significantly more roughness but remained oriented with respect to the substrate. AIN growth was faster on Si than MgO(100) or Al2O3 and Si was the only substrate that growth was observed at 500°C.