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Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
This study systematised and synthesised the results of observational studies that were aimed at supporting the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors among adolescents. Relevant scientific articles were searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE and SCOPUS. Observational studies that included the measurement of any CMR factor in healthy adolescents and dietary patterns were included. The search strategy retained nineteen articles for qualitative analysis. Among retained articles, the effects of dietary pattern on the means of BMI (n 18), waist circumference (WC) (n 9), systolic blood pressure (n 7), diastolic blood pressure (n 6), blood glucose (n 5) and lipid profile (n 5) were examined. Systematised evidence showed that an unhealthy dietary pattern appears to be associated with poor mean values of CMR factors among adolescents. However, evidence of a protective effect of healthier dietary patterns in this group remains unclear. Considering the number of studies with available information, a meta-analysis of anthropometric measures showed that dietary patterns characterised by the highest intake of unhealthy foods resulted in a higher mean BMI (0·57 kg/m²; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·63) and WC (0·57 cm; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·67) compared with low intake of unhealthy foods. Controversially, patterns characterised by a low intake of healthy foods were associated with a lower mean BMI (−0·41 kg/m²; 95 % CI −0·46,−0·36) and WC (−0·43 cm; 95 % CI −0·52,−0·33). An unhealthy dietary pattern may influence markers of CMR among adolescents, but considering the small number and limitations of the studies included, further studies are warranted to strengthen the evidence of this relation.
Epidemiological patterns of cardiac disease differ between developed countries and African nations. Despite the collaborative efforts of developed countries, several obstacles hinder the implementation of successful programmes for the management of children with heart disease in Africa.
Materials and methods
This study is a retrospective analysis of a bi-national two-institution partnership programme for the treatment of children with congenital and acquired heart disease. In April, 2011, a continuous medical-surgical programme was inaugurated at Clínica Girassol in Luanda. The main goals were to initiate permanent and local delivery of services while training local teams, allowing autonomous medical and surgical management of children with heart disease.
Between April, 2011 and August, 2015, a total of 1766 procedures were performed on 1682 children. Of them, 1539 had CHD and 143 had acquired heart disease; 94 children underwent interventional treatment. A total of 1672 paediatric surgeries were performed on 1588 children: 1087 (65%) were performed with extracorporeal circulation and 585 (35%) were off-pump. The age distribution of the children was 4.5% (n=76) neonatal, 40.4% (n=675) between 30 days and 1 year, and 55.1% (n=921) over 1 year. There were 76 re-operations (4.5%) due to complications. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.2% (71 patients). Education-wise, several Angolan medical and surgical specialists were trained, allowing near-autonomous cardiac care delivery in children with heart disease.
An innovative cooperation model between a European and an African centre based on permanent delivery of care and education allowed for effective training of local teams and treatment of children with heart disease in their own environment.
The Io Plasma Torus (IPT) is a doughnut-shaped structure of charged particles, composed mainly of sulfur and oxygen ions. The main source of the IPT is the moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the Solar System. Io is the innermost of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, the main source of the magnetospheric plasma and responsible for injecting nearly 1 ton/s of ions into Jupiter's magnetosphere. In this work ground-based observations of the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines are observed, obtained at the MacMath-Pierce Solar Telescope. The results shown here were obtained in late 1997 and occurred shortly after a period of important eruptions observed by the Galileo mission (1996-2003). Several outbursts were observed and periods of intense volcanic activity are important to correlate with periods of brightness enhancements observed at the IPT. The time of response between an eruption and enhancement at IPT is still not well understood.
Little is known about predictors of recovery from bipolar depression.
We investigated affective instability (a pattern of frequent and large mood shifts over time) as a predictor of recovery from episodes of bipolar depression and as a moderator of response to psychosocial treatment for acute depression.
A total of 252 out-patients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder and who were depressed enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) and were randomised to one of three types of intensive psychotherapy for depression (n = 141) or a brief psychoeducational intervention (n = 111). All analyses were by intention-to-treat.
Degree of instability of symptoms of depression and mania predicted a lower likelihood of recovery and longer time until recovery, independent of the concurrent effects of symptom severity. Affective instability did not moderate the effects of psychosocial treatment on recovery from depression.
Affective instability may be a clinically relevant characteristic that influences the course of bipolar depression.
The objective of this research is to find new equations for a novel
phase-shifting method in digital photoelasticity. Some innovations are proposed.
In terms of phase-shifting, only the analyzer is rotated, and the other
equations are deduced by applying a new numerical technique instead of the usual
algebraic techniques. This approach can be used to calculate a larger sequence
of images. Each image represents a pattern and a measurement of the stresses
present in the object. A reduction in the difference between the theoretical and
experimental values of stresses was obtained by increasing the number of images
in the equations for calculating phase. Every photographic image has errors and
random noise, but the uncertainties due to these effects can be reduced with a
larger number of observations.
We examine a novel phase of the underscreened Anderson lattice Model that might pertain to the ”Hidden Ordered” phase of URu2Si2. We show that the system breaks spin-rotational invariance below the critical temperature and spontaneously selects a preferred axis of spin quantization. As a result, the low temperature phase exhibits a magnetic anisotropy, where the electronic properties depend not only on the magnitude of the magnetic field but also on the orientation of the applied field relative to the axis of quantization. The results are discussed in the context of recent experimental findings on URu2Si2.
The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients' prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy.
Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments.
Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT) = 2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT = 32.0) or >20 (NNT = 9.0) depressive episodes.
Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression.
This study was conducted to investigate the physiological response of sugarcane genotypes to drought and its consequence for stalk yield. Sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094, IACSP96-2042 and SP87-365 were subjected to water deficit during the initial growth phase by withholding water. Resistance and sensitivity patterns were defined by the impact of drought on the stalk yield and content of soluble solids in the stalk juice. IACSP94-2094 and SP87-365 were considered drought-resistant genotypes, as the stalk dry matter production and yield of soluble solids were not reduced by the water deficit. Although drought caused reductions in leaf gas exchange in all the genotypes, IACSP96-2042 was most affected when considering the cumulative reduction in photosynthesis throughout the experimental period. This photosynthetic impairment of IACSP96-2042 was related to both non-stomatal and stomatal limitations, whereas photosynthesis in SP87-365 and IACSP94-2094 were only stomatally limited under drought. In general, a reduced photosynthetic sensitivity to water deficit was an important physiological trait for dry matter production in sugarcane plants, and the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, sucrose, starch and proline in the leaves did not reveal consistent differences between the patterns of resistance and sensitivity. Even though IACSP96-2042 was severely affected by water shortage, this genotype presented a similar stalk yield under drought and the highest stalk yield under well-watered conditions when compared to the other genotypes. This response to variable water conditions is interesting for regions with seasonal drought, whereas the pattern of drought resistance is more appropriate for regions in which drought occurs for long periods during the crop season. Our findings are also discussed from the point of view that increases in sugarcane yield and sustainable agriculture may be reached by choosing the best genotype for each specific environmental condition.
Titan, the largest satellite of the planet Saturn, has a thick atmosphere which consists of nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4). In 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission observed the occultation of two stars through the atmosphere of Titan and measured ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectra. Through these spectra it was possible to identify the molecular species contained in this environment. In the present work, we have simulated a spectrum of this atmosphere using some molecules such as CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C4H2, and C6H6. Our cross sections data were experimentally obtained using the electron energy-loss technique, where the electron energy-loss spectra, measured high incident energies and in small scattering angles, are similar to photoabsorption spectra. The comparison of our synthetic spectrum with that measured by Cassini shows that this method is very efficient for identifying molecules as well as estimating abundances.
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a recent technique that allows
evaluation of features in biological systems that could not be
previously observed by other instruments. Red Blood Cells (RBC) have
been extensively studied because of their relatively simple membrane
structure, convenience of preparation and scanning . As an ancillary
way of confirming diagnoses, AFM has mostly been used to determine shape
and size of RBCs, which are important indicators of some blood diseases
or disordered erythropoiesis . In Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
hematopoiesis is inefficacious with consequent anemia that may evolve to
acute leukemia. Genomic alterations lead to structural defects in the
biomolecular network that forms the erythrocyte membrane. The
deformation capability of the cells and their lifetime in circulation
are diminished . AFM allows us to observe in a controlled way the
response of these membrane molecular networks under physical and
chemical stimuli in many different physiological conditions, such as in
air and liquids . Using this technique, many new characteristics have
been found in erythrocyte membranes that are still of undetermined
significance [3,4]. The aim of our work is to compare membrane
morphology of two groups of blood donors, that is, healthy subjects and
patients with MDS. The images yielded by AFM confirm the structure of
the erythrocytes and reveal interesting submicron features on the cell,
suggesting a way to distinguish between RBCs from healthy donors and
RBCs from patients with MDS.
Brightness variations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, occurring at several time scales, are known properties of blazars. The variability of the continuum emission may be related to the formation and propagation of shock waves in the relativistic jet. In this case we may expect variations also in the degree of polarization and its position angle. In order to effectively constrain such models, we begun in 2003 a program to monitor the optical polarimetry of a sample of blazars, of which we present here the first results.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Forward solution studies have been performed using a cellular automata
computer model. This computational procedure has been applied to simulate cardiac
tissue activation and its corresponding magnetic field generated has been calculated.
The propagation pattern associated with different mechanisms of atrial flutter
arrhythmia has been simulated. For each simulated pattern of propagation, one has
investigated the effect on the magnetic field generated, produced by the introduction of
a conduction inhomogeneity due to a slow-pathway. This latter represents the site of
successful ablation in the treatment of atrial flutter. The analysis of different
computational images obtained allowed one to characterize the possibility of
identification of regions of slow conduction in the simulated cardiac tissues.
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