The influence of kaolinite and montmorillonite on the identification of pseudoboehmite was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), infrared absorption (IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the randomly oriented samples containing different proportions of the clay minerals and pseudoboehmite, pseudoboehmite was not easily detectable by XRD even in a sample containing 40% of pseudoboehmite. Preheating of the samples at 110-300°C improved the detection limit to 30%. In samples obtained by mixing suitable amounts of the suspensions of the clay minerals (<2 μm) and pseudoboehmite, the identification of pseudoboehmite was even more difficult. In oriented samples, pseudoboehmite was detectable only when present in amounts >30%, at low full-scale counts per second (1000-400 cps), on preheated samples in the presence of kaolinite, or on the samples that were Mg-saturated and solvated with ethylene glycol in the presence of montmorillonite. Identification of pseudoboehmite in the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite by DTA, IR or TEM failed, even in samples containing 50% pseudoboehmite. In the presence of both kaolinite and montmorillonite (1:1 w/w), the identification of pseudoboehmite became much more difficult than in the presence of either mineral alone. The presence of pseudoboehmite in soils may, thus, be undetectable by standard clay mineralogical analyses.