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Five species of Eremothecella are recorded from the Andaman Islands, two of which are described as new: Eremothecella ajaysinghii Jagad. Ram & G. P. Sinha and E. nicobarica Jagad. Ram & G. P. Sinha. Eremothecella ajaysinghii has whitish grey, pruinose ascomata and 8–10(–11)-septate ascospores, while E. nicobarica has non-pruinose ascomata and (14–)15–17-septate ascospores. Eremothecella calamicola Syd., E. macrosperma (Zahlbr.) Sérus. and E. variratae (Aptroot & Sipman) Sérus. are reported as new records for India. An updated worldwide key to species of the genus is presented.
The present work aims to explore the mechanism of action of C-cinnamoyl glycoside as an antifilarial agent against the bovine filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Both apoptosis and autophagy programmed cell death pathways play a significant role in parasitic death. The generation of reactive oxygen species, alteration of the level of antioxidant components and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential may be the causative factors that drive the parasitic death. Monitoring of autophagic flux via the formation of autophagosome and autophagolysosome was detected via CYTO ID dye. The expression profiling of both apoptotic and autophagic marker proteins strongly support the initial findings of these two cell death processes. The increased interaction of pro-autophagic protein Beclin1 with BCL-2 may promote apoptotic pathway by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 from its function. This in turn partially restrains the autophagic pathway by engaging Beclin1 in the complex. But overall positive increment in autophagic flux was observed. Dynamic interaction and regulative balance of these two critical cellular pathways play a decisive role in controlling disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present experimental work may prosper the chance for C-cinnamoyl glycosides to become a potential antifilarial therapeutic in the upcoming day after detail in vivo study and proper clinical trial.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
The structure and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen associated with Gould's Belt have been studied using data of high velocity resolution and large latitude extent covering ℓ = 10o − 350°. The data comprise the Berkeley Survey of Neutral Hydrogen (Weaver and Williams 1973, 1974), and an unpublished survey by Kerr, Bowers, Kerr, and Jackson (1983) using the 60-foot Parkes telescope. The latter is a fully-sampled survey of the region ℓ = 240° to 350°, b = −10° to +10°.
It is known that in the radio spertrum the limb of the quiet sun is brighter in the equatorial regions than near the pole. But most of the available theoretical calculations of the brightness distribution over the quiet sun have been made with the assumption of spherical symmetry. We have therefore calculated two-dimensional distributions at several decimetre and metre wavelengths, taking account of the observed asymmetry in the north-south direction. Newkirk’s method of ray-tracing was used, the calculations being made with a CDC 3600 computer. Some of the preliminary results (particularly for a sunspot minimum period) are presented here; they indicate that the electron temperature of the solar corona has a value of about 1 to 1.5 x 106 °K.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000–April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed.
A complete, high-sensitivity survey of HI (Sinha 1978, in preparation) has been examined for model-independent morphological properties of the distribution of HI in the central region of the Galaxy. The dominant symmetry of the kinematics of HI is evident in Figure 1, where equivelocity contours of the permitted velocity edge (corresponding to 1 K antenna temperature) have been plotted on the longitude-latitude plane. The axis of symmetry is coincident with the Kerr-Sinclair ridge of 20-cm continuum radiation from this region. The positions of the maxima of the absolute velocity in the first and the fourth quadrants are aligned along a line inclined to the line of symmetry indicated in Figure 1. The HI gas, therefore, must have noncircular motion. A similar but not identical symmetry is evident in the distribution of the forbidden velocity edge of the profiles. The absolute magnitude of the velocity peaks and the area under the profiles differ in the two quadrants. The nuclear disk appears to be symmetrical in an angle-velocity diagram in which the angle is measured along the line of symmetry in Figure 1.
Many interesting new results from studies of external galaxies as well as of the Milky Way Galaxy have been presented at this meeting. I shall confine my remarks to but a few observations which appear to be crucial in deriving an acceptable picture of the large scale structure in the Galaxy.
So far as we are aware, the only measurements that have been made of the linear extension of a colloidal medium due to gaseous sorption are those of Dr F. T. Meehan, published in 1927. Meehan studied the response of charcoal to carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure and different temperatures, and found it to expand almost equally along and across the grain when it took in the gas. No tests of this kind appear to have been carried out with other rigid gels or with other gases, and none with any gas under pressure.
Head and face dimensions vary according to race and geographical zone. Hereditary factors also greatly affect the size and shape of the head. There are important medical applications of craniofacial data specific to different racial and ethnic groups.
Various cranial and facial anthropometric parameters were assessed in singleton, healthy, full-term newborns of Sikkimese origin in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim, India. The data were then analysed to determine statistically significant differences between sexes.
Forty-five newborns were included in the study. Both male and female newborns were observed to be hyperbrachycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic. The only significant difference between the sexes was in commissural length, which was observed to be greater in male newborns.
Craniofacial parameters in Sikkimese newborns vary in comparison with those of other newborns from around the world. Larger studies are needed in order to reveal sex-related variations. Similar studies on various racial groups in North-East India are needed to establish standards for populations with East Asian features.
Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Poly(lactide) (PLA) composites filled with electrospun nylon 6 fibers were prepared. This allowed us to simultaneously improve the mechanical properties and tune the degradation of the PLA matrix. The interfacial adhesion between the PLA matrix and the nylon fibers was good. The major effect of electrospun fibers on the matrix was that of modifying the semicrystalline framework, thickening the polymer lamellae. This allowed an increase in the mechanical properties of the material, and on the other hand to modify its degradation behavior. The modulus of the composites was increased up to 3-fold with respect to neat PLA. The peculiar morphology of matrix–filler interaction moreover slowed down the degradation rate of the material and improved the dimensional stability of the specimens during the degradation process. This shows the potential of electrospun fibers as a way to tune the durability of PLA-based products, widening the range of application of this promising material.
Programmed germ cell death (apoptosis) is conspicuous during normal spermatogenesis and serves as a quality control system for the production of normal sperm. Deregulation of germ cell death is associated with defective spermatogenesis and impaired fertility. Mitochondria-dependent intrinsic pathway signaling constitutes a critical component of apoptotic signaling in male germ cells across species. However, the regulation of germ cell apoptosis may vary depending on the nature of the apoptotic stimulus and can be triggered by more than one pathway. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase are critical for activation of the intrinsic pathway signaling in male germ cells. In addition, there is increasing evidence that caspase-2 is an upstream activator of the p38 MAPK and nitric oxide–mediated intrinsic pathway signaling. This chapter focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of germ cell apoptosis in the testis.
The pyramid of pain management involves sequential drug escalation but its role is limited in an emergency department (ED). The efficacy of parental opioid analgesics versus non-opioid analgesic in acute pain management of trauma victims in the ED was evaluated to formulate protocol.
All alert patients with a baseline visual analogue scale score (≥ 7) was randomly assigned either parental non-opioid (Group A) or opioid analgesics (Group B). The emergency care providers noted the VAS in either group at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes, and at the time of discharge from the ED. If the patient's VAS score did not reduce by 50% at 30 minutes, repeat parental analgesics was given. The oral analgesics prescribed at the time of discharge were documented. Ethical clearance was taken. Data was compiled and analyzed.
Of 106 patients, 99 were analyzed. The mean age in Group A was 33.2 ± 13.2 years and 32.5 ± 18 years in Group B. The male:female ratio in Group A was 1.5:1 and 7:1 in Group B. The average baseline VAS score in Group A was 7.5, and that of Group B was 8.96. The average VAS at 15, 30, and 60 minutes and at discharge in Group A was 5.4, 5.34, 4.3, and 3.5 and it was 6.1, 6, 5.1, and 4.4. Repeat parental dose of analgesics were required in 95/99 (95%) patients in Group A and 5% that of Group B. The most common prescription at discharge from ED was non-opioid analgesics.
Acute pain relief was comparable in both groups. Non-opioid analgesics may be preferred over opioid in VAS score ± 7 in a busy emergency department for early disposition.
Trauma during pregnancy poses a challenge in assessment and management due to its unique anatomical and physiological changes. Trauma is the leading non-obstetrical cause of death. There is paucity of epidemiological data in this subgroup in India. An emergency department (ED)-based epidemiological study was conducted.
Female trauma victims of reproductive age with both positive and negative urinary pregnancy tests (UPTs) were selected retrospectively. Documentation was done by the nursing staff from the ED case records. Mode, mechanism, severity, site of injury, and ED disposal time were noted, compiled, and analyzed.
Of 64 patients, 32 patients were UPT-positive and 32 were UPT-negative. The mean age was 26 (range 18–36) years. A total of 75% of UPT-positive and 59.3% of UPT-negative cases had assault due to domestic violence. As per START triage protocol, 84.3% of UPT-positive and 59.3% patients in UPT negative were triaged as yellow. Blunt trauma to the abdomen was the most common mechanism and site of injury in all patients. FAST and ultrasonic evaluation of the fetus was performed for all UPT-positive patients. The average ED disposal time was 2 hours 62 minutes in UPT-positive and 1.9 hours in UPT-negative.
Limited data suggest domestic violence as leading cause of trauma in pregnancy. A large, epidemiological study is required to validate this.
Acute pain assessment and management in trauma victims is often overlooked in emergency department (ED). Visual analogue scale is the preferred scale for assessment and management of pain however, its role in a busy ED is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of verbal and visual analogue scale among emergency care providers.
Emergency caregivers were instructed to use both pain scales wherever feasible for assessment, management, and monitoring of pain in 100 non-consecutive alert patients. A separate, pre-tested survey questionnaire addressing the feasibility of each pain scales was surveyed among emergency care providers (emergency physicians, nursing staff). A Likert scale (1 to 5) was assessed for cooperativeness, availability of time for assessment, the format, the peak period feasibility, the monitoring ease and the amount of work load. Binary scale (yes and no) was used to measure the overall utility in assessment and management of pain.
Out of 100 patients enrolled, the verbal analogue score was used in all patients and visual analogue score was used in 30 patients. The average Likert scale score for verbal analogue score questionnaire was 1.7 and the average Likert scale score for visual analogue score questionnaire was 3.9. On the overall utility both scales were found to be useful in all patients.
Both the scales were found to be useful in overall assessment and management of pain. However, there was a favorable trend towards using verbal analogue scale among emergency care providers.
Cerebral palsy (CP) affects between 2 and 3 per 1000 live births and is thought to be the most common cause of serious physical disability in childhood. A widely used topographical classification of CP has been formulated by the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe group. This divides CP into spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic subtypes. Children with CP due to central nervous system (CNS) malformation, infection, and gray matter damage were more likely to have epilepsy than those with CP due to white matter damage. The predominant type is focal seizures or focal seizures evolving into secondary generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures. The majority of CP etiologies can be established based on a detailed history, examination, and neuroimaging without the need for other investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice. Epilepsy surgery can have a good outcome particularly for children with hemiplegia.