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Disparities exist among Latino smokers with respect to knowledge and access to smoking cessation resources. This study tested the feasibility of using case management (CM) to increase access to pharmacotherapy and quitlines among Latino smokers.
Latino smokers were randomized to CM (n = 40) or standard care (SC, n = 40). All participants received educational materials describing how to utilize pharmacy assistance for cessation pharmacotherapy and connect with quitlines. CM participants received four phone calls from staff to encourage pharmacotherapy and quitline use. At 6-months follow-up, we assessed the utilization of pharmacotherapy and quitline. Additional outcomes included self-reported smoking status and approval for pharmacotherapy assistance.
Using intention-to-treat analysis, CM produced higher utilization than SC of both pharmacotherapy (15.0% versus 2.5%; P = 0.108) and quitlines (12.5% versus 5.0%; P = 0.432), although differences were not statistically significant. Approval for pharmacotherapy assistance programs (20.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.0005) was significantly higher for CM than SC participants. Self-reported point-prevalence smoking abstinence at 6-months were 20.0% and 17.5% for CM and SC, respectively (P = 0.775).
CM holds promise as an effective intervention to connect Latino smokers to evidence-based cessation treatment.
Invertebrates are of particular interest on heather moorlands because of their rapid response to small scale habitat changes. Spiders constitute a variable proportion of the diet of heather moorland bird, mammal and reptile species. Furthermore, spiders may be an important indicator of habitat change resulting from management practices, especially those that exert a large- scale spatial impact, e.g. grazing. The component families and species of spider assemblages indicate, through their differing preference for web attachments and web structure, the vegetation density, height and structure (Marc et al., 1999). This effect may be especially pronounced where continued grazing at a particular stocking rate results in characteristic patterns in the vegetation structure. Species and family specific hunting strategies determine prey type and so the presence of some spider species may indicate the presence of a preferred prey species. This study aims to investigate the effect of grazing with sheep alone or in combination with cattle grazing on an upland heather moorland in the north of England.
Profile surveys are presented of four ice rises on the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. On Butler Island velocity measurements were also made. The ice rises behave as miniature ice caps frozen to flat horizontal bedrock and provide a simple system for the study of laws of ice flow. Deformation is principally by shear through the ice mass. Velocity measurements provide a value of n = 3.13±0.52 for the flow law . Each ice rise is bounded on one side by ice shelf and on the other side by open sea. Towards open sea the profiles are found to agree well with steady-state theoretical profiles and they supply a value of for temperature – 13.5°C and stress range 0.5–1.3 bar. Towards ice shelf the profiles are elongated and they deviate from the theoretical profile. This may be due to compressive stress in the ice shelf causing migration of the grounding line down sloping bedrock. No significantly anomalous behaviour is found in the summit region.
Poaching with snares has been identified as the main cause of decline of the endemic roan antelope Hippotragus equinuslangheldi in Ruma National Park, Kenya, from > 200 in 1979 to 37 in 2009. However, the spatial snaring patterns in the Park are not clearly understood. The focus of our study was to map the spatial distribution of snares in the Park and to identify the factors influencing this distribution, to develop effective methods of wildlife protection. Using data collected from 56 sample plots during 2006–2008, coupled with geographical information system techniques, we investigated the association between the occurrence of snares and the distribution of geographical features (slope, elevation), infrastructure (roads, fences), essential resources for wildlife (water, salt licks, forage), roan locations and wildlife density. Ripley's L function for assessing complete spatial randomness indicated that snares occurred in clumps (hotspots) up to 4 km apart. Negative binomial regression indicated that these hotspots occurred (1) near water resources, salt licks and the Park boundary, (2) far from roan locations and Park roads, (3) in areas with low gradients and low wildlife density, and (4) in areas with burned vegetation. We recommend concentrating routine security patrol efforts and resources on snare hotspots to reduce snaring and to protect the roan antelope and other threatened wildlife.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are a species of conservation concern that require Marine Protected Area management and population status assessment under the EU Habitats Directive. Aerial surveys are commonly used to monitor grey seal pup production at their globally important UK colonies. However, in Wales more than half of pups are born in cryptic breeding habitats such as sea caves. These cryptic habitats preclude the use of aerial monitoring methods and necessitate ground-based counts, which are costly in resources. In this study, we compare a ground-based pup production census with a reduced effort plot-sampling survey to estimate pup production, derive a total population size and assess cost effectiveness. Pup production in North Wales was estimated at 91 (95% confidence interval: 70–112) by the plot-sampling design and was a good approximation of the ‘true’ value of 96 derived from the census. The total population size in North Wales was estimated at between 242 and 307 grey seals. The plot-sampling design reduced survey effort by 46% and saved 30% on logistical costs compared to the full census. We outline the suitability of this method as part of a monitoring programme for grey seal pup production and suggest our approach may be applicable to other regions where grey seals use cryptic breeding habitat.
In this chapter, we address the biophysical impacts of climate change, and the consequent impacts on socio-economic systems. Modelling the impacts associated with future climate change provides important information for society’s mitigation and adaptation responses. It also presents significant challenges for Earth system science. We discuss the ways in which uncertainty in impact modelling arises and how it can be managed.
Changes in climate, including those arising as a consequence of anthropogenic perturbations of the climate system, can result in a wide variety of impacts on Earth’s ecosystems and the human activities that depend on them. There are two good practical reasons why it is important to understand the processes involved and assess the possible magnitudes of impacts.
First, an assessment of the extent to which continued anthropogenic climate change could inflict damage is needed in order that well-informed decisions can be made about the reduction of human influences on climate. Our understanding of Earth system behaviour alerts us to the fact that action to mitigate climate change through reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions is not without consequences; so decisions to pursue mitigation options need to be weighed up on the basis of reliable estimates of the costs, risks and benefits of different courses of action.
Secondly, the increase in atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations since the Industrial Revolution means that further climate change is inevitable even if greenhouse-gas emissions were to be reduced soon ( Figure 6.1 ). It is therefore necessary for society to adapt to unavoidable changes. Since adaptation action is also not without consequences, it is important that adaptive action addresses credible risks , and represents an efficient allocation of resources.
This article provides an overview of spine surgery in older people and reviews outcome and novel techniques. Improvements in pain, disability, and quality of life can be expected following surgery and demand for surgery of this type is likely to increase as the mean age of the population increases. Novel techniques and improved intsrumentation offer surgical treatments for conditions that were previously untreatable and show encouraging early results.
The synthesis of three types of functionalized benzazole structures is described. A centrosymmetric dihydroxy-benzobisthiazole has been synthesized for incorporation in flexible polymers having rigid, conjugated, third order nlo active units in the main chain. Benzazole structures terminated with an N,N-dimethylamino group and a carboxyl group have been synthesized for use as second order nlo pendants with flexible polymers. Benzazole structures terminated with an N,N-dimethylamino group and an amino group have been synthesized as precursors to second order nlo guest molecules.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating the effect of dietary lipids on vascular function. The workshop highlighted the need for intervention studies to be sufficiently powered for these measures and that they should be corroborated with other, more validated, risk factors for CVD. Work presented at the workshop suggested a beneficial effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA and a detrimental effect of trans fatty acids. The workshop also considered the importance of the choice of study population in dietary intervention studies and that ‘at risk’ subgroups within the general population may be more appropriate than subjects that are unrepresentatively healthy.
The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating emerging diet-related surrogate end points for colorectal cancer (CRC). The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. The workshop considered that the validation of current putative diet-related surrogate end points for CRC and the development of novel ones, particularly in the emerging fields of proteomics, genomics and epigenomics, should be a high priority for future research.
Fusulinacean foraminifera have been described from several localities and horizons within the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian of the North American midcontinent (Beede, 1916; Dunbar and Condra, 1927; Skinner, 1931; Newell, 1934; Newell and Keroher, 1937; Merchant and Keroher, 1939; Dunbar and Henbest, 1942; Burma, 1942; Thompson, 1954, 1957; Thompson et al., 1956; Douglass, 1962; King, 1988; Sanderson and Verville, 1988), but surprisingly, a comprehensive account of fusulinacean biostratigraphy of the stratotype of the Upper Pennsylvanian Virgilian Stage has never been published. This report summarizes fusulinacean biostratigraphic data from the Virgilian section in the stratotype region of southeastern Kansas. The publication of this dataset is particularly important because of the current efforts to standardize global Pennsylvanian chronostratigraphy (Metcalfe, 1997), and related efforts and debates concerning the definition and correlation of stages in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian succession of North America.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not generally considered
a cause of infectious diarrhoea. However, it
was the predominant organism isolated from the faeces of 23 unrelated,
investigated in the course of a year for persistent (>1 week duration)
diarrhoea. To investigate
the possible aetiological role of P. aeruginosa, these
patient histories were reviewed and a selection of their faecal isolates
were investigated in vitro (n[ges ]10) and
in vivo (n=2) for
virulence. The patients had a mean age of 60 years, were receiving
antibiotics and/or had an
underlying illness. Extensive microbiological investigations identified
no other potential or
recognized enteropathogen in the faeces of 20 of these patients. More than
40% of the isolates
tested were able to adhere to HEp-2 cells and exhibited twitching motility
(type IV pili),
properties indicative of their ability to colonize the human intestine.
Cytotoxic activity was
demonstrated in bacterium-free cell supernatants of over 80% of isolates;
supernatants of four
isolates tested in infant mice were weakly enterotoxigenic. Two isolates
inoculated into clindamycin pre-treated rats established persistent infections
and induced signs
and symptoms of enteritis. Overall these findings suggest that P. aeruginosa
diarrhoea particularly in immunodeficient individuals.
A chloroform extract of molluscicidal plant secondary compounds from the seeds of a West African legume Millettia thonningii was used to attenuate cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni prior to infection of NMRI female mice. Exposure of cercariae to 0·3, 0·6, 1·3, 2·5, 10 or 20 mg/l concentrations of extract for 30 mm, immediately before standardized infection, was associated with a concentration-dependent decline in worm establishment at 55 days post-infection. The mean numbers of adult worms established declined from about 17 worms/mouse with control cercariae and those exposed to 0·3 mg/l Millettia to 0·1 worms/mouse after 10 mg/l pre-treatment. Mice exposed to cercariae after 20 mg/l pre-treatment had no adult worms at 55 days post-infection. The activities of cercariae 30 mm after exposure to Millettia extract at concentrations up to 2·5 mg/l were similar to those of control larvae: none was immobile. Exposure to higher concentrations of Millettia progressively reduced swimming activity and increased the proportion of immobile cercariae. After pretreatment with 20 mg/l Millettia the majority of larvae were immobile. Levels of anti-parasite antibodies (estimated by ELISA assay using an adult worm-based antigen preparation) rose between 21 and 55 days p.i. with control cercariae and those pre-treated with 2·5 mg/l Millettia. After 5 mg/l pre-treatment, cercariae induced a reduced antibody rise, while mice exposed to cercariae after 10 mg/l pre-treatment showed no rise in anti-parasite antibody levels. These results are discussed in the context of protocols which could possibly use Millettia-attenuated cercariae to induce useful levels of protection in mice towards further cercarial challenge.
In this chapter we extend the notion of a geometric homology and cohomology (mock bundle) theory by allowing
(3) restrictions on normal bundles.
The final notion of a ‘geometric theory’ is in fact sufficiently general to include all theories (this being the main result of Chapter VII).
A further extension, to equivariant theories, will be covered in Chapter V.
In the present chapter, we also deal with coefficients in an arbitrary geometric theory. A geometric theory with coefficients is itself an example of a geometric theory and it is thus possible to introduce coefficients repeatedly!
The chapter is organised as follows. In §1 we extend the treatment of coefficients in the last chapter to cover oriented mock bundles and in §§2 and 3 we deal with singularities and restrictions on the normal bundle. In §§4 and 5 we give interesting examples of geometric theories, including Sullivan's description of K-theory  and some theories which represent (ordinary) Zp-homology. Finally §6 deals with coefficients in the general theory.
COBORDISM WITH COEFFICIENTS
We now combine Chapters II and III to give a geometric description of cobordism with coefficients. It is first necessary to introduce oriented mock bundles (the theory dual to oriented bordism). We give here the simplest definition of orientation, an alternative definition will be given in §2.
The purpose of these notes is to give a geometrical treatment of generalized homology and cohomology theories. The central idea is that of a 'mock bundle', which is the geometric cocycle of a general cobordism theory, and the main new result is that any homology theory is a generalized bordism theory. The book will interest mathematicians working in both piecewise linear and algebraic topology especially homology theory as it reaches the frontiers of current research in the topic. The book is also suitable for use as a graduate course in homology theory.
In this chapter we give a geometric treatment of coefficients in oriented pl bordism theory. The definition (although not all the theorems) extend to other geometric homology theories and this extension will be covered in Chapter IV, as will the extension to cobordism (mock bundle) theories. Application to general homology theories and connection with other definitions of coefficients will be covered in Chapter VII.
There are two good definitions of coefficients:
1. For a short resolution ρ of an abelian group G we define coefficients in ρ by labelling with generators and introducing one stratum of singularities of codimension 1 corresponding to the relations (see §1).
2. We allow labelling by any group elements, and singularities corresponding to any relation and then, in the bordisms, allow singularities of codimension 2 corresponding to ‘relations between relations’ (see §3).
Definition 1 is very simple geometrically while definition 2 is functorial in G. To prove equivalence of the two definitions involves a further definition, for longer resolutions (in §2). The basic geometrical trick is resolution of singularities and appears in the proof of the universal coefficient sequence in §2. The universal coefficient sequence itself can be seen as the measure of the obstruction to resolution of the final singularity. In §3 it is seen that the universal coefficient sequence is natural for G; consequently by  it splits for a large class of abelian groups, including all groups of finite type.