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India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
Nano-patterned surfaces have potential applications in the development of efficient solar cells through multiple internal reflections and may be used to fulfil the energy demand of rural India. Therefore, the basic understanding of growth mechanism of patterns under ion irradiation is much required. Here, the ripple patterns are grown on Si (100) surfaces for two specific ion irradiation conditions. First, the two set of samples (namely set-A and set-B) of Si (100) are irradiated by 50 keVAr+ ion beam at oblique (60°) and normal incidence, respectively, using ion fluence of 5×1016 ions/ cm2. The aim of this first stage irradiation at two different angles is the creation of different depth locations of amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface while keeping the free surface similar in surface features, which is a crucial parameter in surface growth. Further, the sequential second stage irradiation is carried out at 60° for the same energy of Ar beam for the fluences 3×1017 to 9×1017 ions/cm2 to see the evolution of ripple patterns. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows that the ripple pattern ordering is better in set-A rather than set-B. Lateral correlation length of each ripple structure surface is computed by autocorrelation function while roughness exponent is measured with height-height correlation function. Fractals behaviors of patterned on Si (100) surface are found to be sensitive to the two stage irradiation approach. The understanding of the mechanism of nano-patterns formation may be useful to develop efficient solar systems for the needs of energy in rural India.
Perforations of the tympanic membrane are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma during underlay myringoplasty.
The study included 40 patients. Autologous platelet-rich plasma was applied in-between temporalis fascia graft and tympanic membrane remnant during underlay myringoplasty in group 1 (n = 20). The outcome was evaluated after three months and compared with group 2 (n = 20), a control group that underwent routine underlay tympanoplasty.
After three months’ follow up, graft uptake was 95 per cent in group 1 and 85 per cent in group 2 (p < 0.03). Mean hearing threshold gain was 18.62 dB in group 1 and 13.15 dB in group 2. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Platelet-rich plasma, with its ease of preparation technique, availability, low cost, autologous nature and good graft uptake rate, justifies its use in tympanoplasty type I procedures.
In vitro rumen methane output (IRMO) of over 200 feed/feed mix samples representing approximately 74 feed types was investigated in a series of completely randomized experiments. The samples comprised dry fodder, grass, tree leaves, cultivated grasses, cereal by-products, cereal grains, oilseed/meals, compound feeds and total mixed rations (TMRs) from the tropical regions. These samples were subjected to three in vitro gas production tests at 39 °C in 100 ml Heberle syringes. The first incubation was conducted with 200 mg dry matter (DM) substrate for 96 h to determine half-time gas production (t1/2, h) value of each sample. The second and third incubations were carried out simultaneously. The second incubation was done with 200 mg DM substrate until t1/2 time to determine IRMO and third with 500 mg DM to estimate in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of each samples, respectively. The IRMO was expressed as ml/100 mg digestible substrate. Crude protein content (g/kg DM) was lowest in dry fodder samples and highest in oilseed meals, whereas it was similar in local grass and tree leaves. The IVDMD values ranged from 0·48 to 0·87; the lowest digestibility was recorded in tree leaves. The potential gas production (PGP, ml/200 mg DM) ranged from 9·76 to 61·3. The PGP from grasses and compound feeds was similar, whereas it was lowest in tree leaves. The rate constant (mg/h) was maximum in compound feed followed by oilseed meal. The rate constant was similar among other group of feedstuffs. The t1/2 time ranged from 9·8 to 19·4 h. The highest t1/2 time was recorded in local grass samples followed by dry fodder and cultivated grasses. However, they were similar among tree leaves, cereal grains, by-products and compound feeds. The methane % in the total gas varied from 9·79 (tree leaves) to 20·2 (local grasses). Among straw, IRMO varied from 3·88 (Zea mays fodder) to 12·0 (Sorghum vulgare) and it was lower in fruit tree leaves than cultivated grasses. Among protein and energy sources, IRMO was higher in cereal by-products as compared with cereal grains, oil meals and compound feed. The IRMO was similar among TMR, irrespective of the composition of the concentrate mixture. Nevertheless, it varied with the amount of concentrate in the TMR. This is the first exhaustive data on IRMO from the tropical region. Because of the substantial amount of dietary gross energy lost in methane, knowledge of the methane output from these feed ingredients will help in formulating low methane emitting diets for ruminants. Incorporation of tropical tree leaves in the diets and feeding TMR are potential strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in ruminants.
Important transformations in psychiatric healthcare (HC) delivery have been implemented in Latin America during the beginning of 21st century. However, information on current service uses patterns is scant, obstructing the estimates and proper planning of service needs for general population. The current investigation aims to describe patterns and estimates predictors of 12-month HC use by individuals with mental disorders in São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil.
Data are from São Paulo Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional multistage representative study. Participants were face-to-face interviewed in their household, using a structured diagnostic interview, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A total of 5037 respondents, non-institutionalised, aged 18 years and older were interviewed. The response rate was 81.3%. We determined the percentages of individuals with 12-month DSM-IV anxiety, mood and substance disorders that received treatment in the 12 months prior to assessment in main service sectors (specialty mental health, general medicine, human services (HS), and complementary and alternative medicine). The number of visits and percentage of individuals who received treatment at minimally adequacy also was estimated. Multilevel regression controlled contextual variables that influenced the use of service and treatment adequacy.
Only 10.1% of respondents used some HC service in the 12 months prior to assessment for their psychiatric problems, including 3.9% of them being treated either by a psychiatrist, 3.5% by a non-psychiatrist mental health specialist, 3.3% by a general medical (GM) provider, 1.5% by a HS provider and 1.4% by a complementary and alternative medical provider. In general, those participants who received service in the mental health specialty sector reported more visits than those in the GM sector (median 3.9 v. 1.5 visits). The cases seen in specialty sector outnumber those visiting GM treatment in terms of minimally adequate treatment (54.6 v. 23.2%). The likelihood of receiving treatment was significantly greater among individuals diagnosed with any anxiety and mood disorder, presenting more severe disorders, and with possession of HC insurance.
The great majority of individuals with an active mental disorder in São Paulo were either untreated or insufficiently treated. Awareness and training programmes to GM professionals are advocated to improve recognition, care take and referral to specialty care when needed. Proper integration among HC sectors is recommended.
A facile technique was adopted to synthesize beautiful lilac bush resembling TiO2-SnO2 microflowers aggregates for photodegradation of Congo Red (CR). The TiO2-SnO2 microflowers in the 2-3 μm range with high surface area (80 m2/g), under optimized conditions of catalyst dosage (0.3 g/L), dye concentration (100 ppm) and pH value is 10, exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light, whereby, 98.3% of the CR aqueous solution was degraded in 40 min of illumination time and also shows good recyclable photocatalytic activities. Further, the gas sensing properties of the as-synthesized material were evaluated towards detection of a variety of volatile organic compounds, such as acetone, methanol, benzene, ammonia, toluene, diethyl ether, and ethanol.
Vitamin D plays an important role in skeletal health throughout life. Some studies have hypothesised that vitamin D may reduce the risk of other diseases. Our study aimed to estimate age-specific and sex-specific serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and to identify the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in Hong Kong, a subtropical city in southern China. In 2009–2010, households in Hong Kong were followed up to identify acute respiratory illnesses, and sera from 2694 subjects were collected in three to four different study phases to permit measurement of 25(OH)D levels at different times of the year. A questionnaire survey on diet and lifestyle was conducted among children, with simultaneous serum collection in April and May 2010. The mean of serum 25(OH)D levels in age groups ranged from 39 to 63 nmol/l throughout the year with the mean values in all age groups in spring below 50 nmol/l. Children aged 6–17 years, and girls and women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D levels than adults, and boys and men, respectively (all P< 0·001). We estimated that serum 25(OH)D levels in Hong Kong followed a lagged pattern relative to climatic season by 5 weeks with lowest observed levels in early spring (March). For children aged 6–17 years, reporting a suntan, having at least 1 servings of fish/week and having at least 1 serving of eggs/week were independently associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels. Adequate sunlight exposure and increased intake of dietary vitamin D could improve vitamin D status, especially for children and females in the winter and spring.
Hyperprolactinemia is frequent in patients with schizophrenic psychoses. It is usually regarded as an adverse effect of antipsychotics but has recently also been shown in patients without antipsychotic medication. Our objective was to test whether hyperprolactinemia occurs in antipsychotic-naive first-episode patients (FEPs).
In the framework of the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST), 249 out of 498 FEPs were eligible for this study, of whom 74 were antipsychotic naive. All patients were investigated regarding their serum prolactin levels with immunoassays standardized against the 3rd International Reference Standard 84/500.
Twenty-nine (39%) of the 74 antipsychotic-naive patients showed hyperprolactinemia not explained by any other reason, 11 (50%) of 22 women and 18 (35%) of 52 men.
Hyperprolactinemia may be present in patients with schizophrenic psychoses independent of antipsychotic medication. It might be stress induced. As enhanced prolactin can increase dopamine release through a feedback mechanism, this could contribute to explaining how stress can trigger the outbreak of psychosis.
Assessment of safety and efficacy within the porcine coronary artery model remains a standard requirement for new therapies delivered to the coronary arteries before proceeding to clinical testing. Human coronary procedures carry a very low mortality rate; however, procedural mortality for porcine experiments is often high, despite these animals being young and free of atherosclerosis. Some of these deaths are due to poor technique, and therefore avoidable. However, despite the wide use of this model, a systematic description of the procedure has never been published. This article will detail how porcine angiography and stent implantation is performed in our institution and will discuss the relevant differences between humans and pigs with regard to anaesthesia, pharmacotherapy, vascular access, catheter selection and angiographic views. Important variations to the technique that have been reported are also covered.
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) ratoon crops comprise more than 0·50 of India's sugarcane acreage and reduce the cost of cultivation by 25–30%. However, ratooning is seldom practised beyond 1–2 ratoons because the yield declines in successive ratoons due to compacted soils with decreased fertility restricting root development and plant growth. Therefore, a field experiment on sugarcane was conducted from 1998 to 2003 at the Sugarcane Research Institute, Muzzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh), India to evaluate the effects of combinations of trash management with key cultural practices (stubble shaving, ridge dismantling, sub-soiling along stubble rows, trash mulching and earthing-up) on growth and yield of sugarcane up to the third ratoon. Two treatment combinations (ridge dismantling+stubble shaving+sub-soiling along stubble rows+trash mulching at 8 t/ha (T5) and all these plus earthing-up in June (T6)) showed similar growth, yield and economics of ratoon crops. Both these treatments produced significantly higher shoot populations, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter (DM) accumulation, net assimilation rate (NAR), number of millable canes, ratoon cane yield and sugar, soil organic carbon (SOC) content at harvest and higher net returns besides lowering weed density, weed dry weight and bulk density of soil compared with other treatments. T6 produced the highest cane yield of 77, 72 and 65 tonnes (t)/ha, which was 23, 27 and 29% more than trash burning alone (T1) in first, second and third ratoon crops, respectively. Although T6 had the same yield as T5, it led to significantly lower soil bulk density at 0–150 mm depth, higher SOC contents and greater benefit: cost ratios in the first, second and third ratoon crops, respectively compared with trash burning only. Adoption of the crop management components, separately or in combination, improved on trash burning only (the control treatment). Trash mulching sustained the improved yield and economic returns of sugarcane ratoon crops.
Training schemes in psychiatry are developed and evaluated by national education policy makers in the majority of European countries. However, the requirements that a training program in psychiatry should meet are also defined on the European level in a form of recommendations by the Board of Psychiatry - European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS).
Recently, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) which represent trainees from more then 30 European countries, reported data pertaining to the structure of training programs and to the evaluation of training programs in 30 European countries. Whereas in the majority of European countries the structure of training programs and methods of assessment of trainees' competencies are partially compatible with one another and with the existing recommendations at the European level, the quality assurance of training programs varies significantly among countries. Regular evaluations of training programs and mentors, however, contribute to the proper implementation of training programs and help that the theoretical training principles are followed through in practice. As quality assurance of training schemes is an important mechanism how to improve the delivery of training programs, it should gain more focus by responsible authorities who structure the psychiatric training on the national and international European level.
Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an economically important fruit crop for folk and marginal farmers and local tribal populations in the high-altitude difficult terrains of north-western Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh states of India. This is a multi-purpose fruit tree species which, besides its fresh edible fruits, is preserved for use in diverse ways depending upon the type of cultivar. Seed kernel of apricot is used as edible nut and for the production of edible oil. In the present study, 147 diverse accessions of wild and cultivated apricot belonging to 28 folk cultivars were collected and characterized for fruit, stone and kernel characters. Indigenous traditional uses and importance of fruits and kernels of these folk cultivars have been recorded and described. Promising table-type cultivars identified were Margulam, Lodi, Shakarpara, Narmo and Khurmani, while drying-type cultivars were Halman, Shakarpara, Rakchey Karpo and Tachu. Cultivars Chuli and Shadi were the most common types and widely distributed with vast variability, while other cultivars had localized presence. Some of these folk cultivars have high potential for promotion as commercial cultivars of apricot in this high-altitude area basically depending upon traditional production system. Genetic resource management including collection, characterization and documentation of existing variability of apricot is of immense importance for safe conservation and commercialization of potential cultivars to enhance farmer's livelihood in this fragile agroecosystem.
This is the first report on increasing yield and nutritional content of snake melon (Cucumis melo L. var. flexuosus) by exploiting intraspecific genetic variation of genetically diverse melons. Inbred snake melon ‘Punjab Long melon 1’ (PLM1) was hybridized with five genetically diverse inbred melons: KP 7 (var. momordica), AM 72 (var. acidulus), ‘Arya 1’ (var. chate), 04-02 (var. tibish) and ‘Punjab Wanga’ (unknown botanical variety). The parents and hybrids were evaluated at three locations for nine traits. Hybrids PLM1 × 04-02 and PLM1 × ‘Punjab Wanga’ exhibited significant (P0.05) heterosis for the number of marketable fruits per plant, and ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents of marketable fruits.