To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The use of targets with surface structures for laser-driven particle acceleration has potential to significantly boost the particle and radiation energies because of enhanced laser absorption. We investigate, via experiment and particle-in-cell simulations, the impact of micron-scale surface-structured targets on the spectrum of electrons and protons accelerated by a picosecond laser pulse at relativistic intensity. Our results show that, compared with flat-surfaced targets, structures on this scale give rise to a significant enhancement in particle and radiation emission over a wide range of laser–target interaction parameters. This is due to the longer plasma scale length when using micro-structures on the target front surface. We do not observe an increase in the proton cutoff energy with our microstructured targets, and this is due to the large volume of the relief.
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent and impairing condition for which there are several evidence-based psychotherapies. However, a significant proportion of patients fail to complete a ‘sufficient dose’ of psychotherapy, potentially limiting treatment gains. Aims: The present study investigated predictors of premature treatment discontinuation during a trial of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for PTSD. Method: Combat veterans with PTSD were recruited to participate in a randomized clinical trial of PE delivered in person or via telehealth technologies. Of the 150 initial participants, 61 participants discontinued the trial before the completion of eight sessions (of an 8‒12 session protocol). Treatment condition (telehealth or in person) and factors identified by prior research (age, combat theatre, social support, PTSD symptoms) were tested as predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results: A Cox proportional hazards model (a subtype of survival analysis) was used to evaluate predictors of treatment discontinuation. Disability status and treatment condition were identified as significant predictors of discontinuation, with a noted disability and use of telehealth demonstrating higher risk. Conclusions: The present findings highlight the influence of telehealth and disability status on treatment discontinuation, while minimizing the role of the previously identified variables from studies with less sensitive analyses.
We examined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing thyroid cartilage and thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma, by comparing histopathology results with imaging findings.
A retrospective study reviewed histology and magnetic resonance scan results for all total laryngectomies performed between 1998–2008 at University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool.
Pre-operative magnetic resonance images were reviewed independently by two consultant head and neck radiologists masked to the histology; their opinions were then compared with histology findings.
Eighty-one magnetic resonance scans were reviewed. There were 22 laryngectomy patients with histologically verified thyroid cartilage invasion and one patient with thyroid gland invasion. There were 31 patients with apparent radiological thyroid cartilage invasion pre-operatively (with 17 false positives), giving sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 64, 71, 45 and 84 per cent, respectively. On assessing thyroid gland invasion, there were nine false positive scans and no false negative scans, giving sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100, 89, 10 and 100 per cent, respectively.
Magnetic resonance scanning over-predicts thyroid cartilage and gland invasion in patients undergoing total laryngectomy. Magnetic resonance scans have limited effectiveness in predicting thyroid cartilage invasion by squamous cell carcinoma in laryngectomy patients.
Theorems of Gersgorin-type are established for a diagonally dominant, unbounded, infinite matrix operator A acting on lp for some l ≦p≦∞. The results are established using an approximating sequence of infinite matrices An that converges to A in the generalised sense as n → ∞. This constructive approach admits approximation of the spectral properties of A by those of An.
Research was conducted in North Carolina to determine peanut response to flumioxazin as influenced by rate and timing of application and cultivar. Delaying application of flumioxazin from 1 d after planting until peanut emergence increased injury regardless of rate. The Virginia market-type cultivar ‘NC-V 11’ was injured more by flumioxazin than the cultivars ‘Gregory’ or ‘Perry’. However, pod yield was not affected by flumioxazin even though significant injury was observed early in the season regardless of flumioxazin rate, application timing, or cultivar. Diclosulam was more effective than flumioxazin in controlling eclipta when these herbicides were applied PRE with metolachlor or following pendimethalin PPI. However, control by flumioxazin prevented yield loss when compared with metolachlor alone.
Research was conducted in North Carolina to compare weed control by various rates of imazapic POST alone or following diclosulam PRE. In a second experiment, weed control by imazapic applied POST alone or with acifluoren, diclosulam, or 2,4-DB was compared. In a final experiment, yellow nutsedge control by imazapic alone and with the fungicides azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, pyraclostrobin, and tebuconazole was compared. Large crabgrass was controlled more effectively by imazapic POST than diclosulam PRE. Common lambsquarters, common ragweed, and eclipta were controlled more effectively by diclosulam PRE than imazapic POST. Nodding spurge was controlled similarly by both herbicides. Few differences in control were noted when comparing imazapic rates after diclosulam PRE. Applying either diclosulam PRE or imazapic POST alone or in combination increased peanut yield over nontreated peanut in five of six experiments. Few differences in pod yield were noted when comparing imazapic rates. Acifluorfen, diclosulam, and 2,4-DB did not affect entireleaf morningglory, large crabgrass, nodding spurge, pitted morningglory, and yellow nutsedge control by imazapic. Eclipta control by coapplication of imazapic and diclosulam exceeded control by imazapic alone. The fungicides azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, pyraclostrobin, and tebuconazole did not affect yellow nutsedge control by imazapic.
Psychological processes in bipolar disorder are of both clinical and theoretical importance.
To examine depressogenic psychological processes and reward responsivity in relation to different mood episodes (mania, depression, remission) and bipolar symptomatology.
One hundred and seven individuals with bipolar disorder (34 in a manic/hypomanic or mixed affective state; 30 in a depressed state and 43 who were euthymic) and 41 healthy controls were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV and completed a battery of self-rated and experimental measures assessing negative cognitive styles, coping response to negative affect, self-esteem stability and reward responsiveness.
Individuals in all episodes differed from controls on most depression-related and reward responsivity measures. However, correlational analyses revealed clear relationships between negative cognitive styles and depressive symptoms, and reward responsivity and manic symptoms.
Separate psychological processes are implicated in depression and mania, but cognitive vulnerability to depression is evident even in patients who are euthymic.
Experiments were conducted from 2003 through 2006 to compare annual grass control by graminicides applied alone or with other pesticides and to determine whether graminicide formulation affected annual grass control and interactions with co-applied pesticides. Formulation and rate had no affect on broadleaf signalgrass or large crabgrass control by clethodim. The efficacy of clethodim in tank mixtures with acifluorfen plus bentazon, bentazon, chlorothalonil, imazapic, pyraclostrobin, or tebuconazole were not affected by clethodim formulation. Broadleaf signalgrass and large crabgrass control by clethodim was slightly reduced by acifluorfen plus bentazon, chlorothalonil, imazapic, and pyraclostrobin, but not by tebuconazole. Chlorothalonil and pyraclostrobin reduced broadleaf signalgrass control with quizalofop-P but did not reduce fall panicum control. Azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and tebuconazole did not affect efficacy of quizalofop-P.
Diclosulam is registered for residual and postemergence control of several broadleaf weeds and suppression of annual sedges in peanut in the southeastern United States. Many producers apply herbicides and other pesticides simultaneously to increase the spectrum of pest control or to increase efficiency of operations. However, compatibility of coapplication of pesticides is a concern. Field trials were conducted to evaluate the compatibility of diclosulam with other herbicides and fungicides. Horseweed control by diclosulam in combination with glyphosate, sulfosate, or paraquat was compared to combinations of these herbicides with flumioxazin, tribenuron plus thifensulfuron, or 2,4-D. All treatments that contained diclosulam controlled horseweed at least 86%. Broadleaf signalgrass control by clethodim and sethoxydim was not affected by diclosulam; however, large crabgrass control was reduced when graminicides were coapplied with diclosulam. Common ragweed control was reduced when diclosulam was applied with chlorothalonil and pyraclostrobin but not by azoxystrobin or tebuconazole.
Diclosulam is generally applied either PPI or PRE to peanut to control certain broadleaf weeds and suppress sedges. Research was conducted to determine efficacy and peanut response to POST applications of diclosulam at 9, 13, 18, and 27 g ai/ha. Efficacy of diclosulam was affected by application rate and environment. Common ragweed control ranged from 60 to 100%, entireleaf morningglory control from 56 to 100%, marestail control from 78 to 85%, and nodding spurge from 50 to 97%. Smooth pigweed and common lambsquarters were both controlled less than 35%. Diclosulam controlled yellow nutsedge and eclipta less than 70 and 80%, respectively. In separate experiments, diclosulam and imazapic controlled dogfennel more effectively than acifluorfen, bentazon, imazethapyr, lactofen, paraquat, or 2,4-DB. Visual estimates of peanut injury were 15% or less for all rates during both years. Peanut yield ranged from 3,340 to 3,730 kg/ha in 2002 and 5,230 to 5,820 kg/ha in 2003. Foliar injury and peanut pod yield were influenced by diclosulam rate, although no clear relation was evident. Cultivar and diclosulam rate did not interact with respect to visual injury or pod yield.
Invasive annual grasses, such as medusahead, can reduce forage production capacity and interfere with revegetation projects in California rangelands. Because of the taxonomic similarity to other more desirable grasses, achieving selective control of invasive annual grasses can be difficult. In selectivity trials conducted in Yolo and Siskiyou counties, CA, the herbicide imazapic gave control of many nonnative annual grasses yet provided some level of selectivity to specific perennial grasses used in revegetation projects throughout the western United States. The selectivity difference between newly seeded perennial and annual grasses was greater with PRE applications than with POST treatments. Both perennial and annual grasses within the tribe Hordeae were more tolerant to imazapic than other grass species. In addition, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern California (Yuba, Yolo, and Lassen counties) and one in southern Oregon (Lake County) to test the response of imazapic to varying management conditions. Imazapic was applied PRE in fall (and also spring in Lake County) at rates from 35 to 210 g/ha on undisturbed rangeland, in comparison with rangeland cleared of standing plant material and thatch by either tillage, mowing and raking, or burning. Imazapic generally showed enhanced weed control when applied following disturbance. Rates as low as 70 g/ha, if combined with thatch removal, provided significant suppression of medusahead. In addition, disturbance alone generally reduced medusahead cover in the following year. Although imazapic showed potential for control of medusahead and other annual grasses, its selectivity window was relatively narrow.
Real matrix pairs (A,H) satisfying det H ≠ 0, HT = εH, and HA - ηATH, where ε, η take the values +1 or —1, are considered. It is shown that maximal A-invariant H-neutral subspaces have the same dimension (depending on ε and η), called the order of neutrality of the pair (A, H). The order of neutrality of definitizable pairs is investigated. In particular, this concept is used to obtain lower bounds for the number of pure imaginary eigenvalues of low rank perturbations of definitizable pairs when (ε,η) = (1, - 1 ) and when (ε,η) = (—1,—1).
Dipotassium clorazepate is a new benzodiazepine derivative with pharmacological and clinical properties resembling diazepam. This report concerns a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover comparison of clorazepate and diazepam which was carried out simultaneously at four centres in the United Kingdom.
Readers may be interested in an elementary exposition of the convergence properties of the sequence of iterates obtained by applying the Newton-Raphson process to an arbitrary polynomial. The coefficients of the polynomial may be real or complex. By restricting attention to polynomials we will give some precise results using the least possible analysis, while proofs for more general functions would necessarily require more high-powered methods. The arguments we will use require only an elementary knowledge of limiting processes.
I would like to add yet another note to those already published on the notions of viscous and hysteretic damping in a simple oscillator. In particular, I would like to hammer a nail into the coffin of the so-called “complex stiffness.“
One of the features which hysteretic damping may be defined to possess is the property that the energy loss per cycle (in sinusoidal motion) is independent of the frequency of oscillation, ω. This property is derived from some experimental evidence. It is shown in Reference 1 that this behaviour is reproduced by the particular integral of the equation
The problems of diagnosis, pathogenesis, aetiology and successful treatment of the idiopathic schizophrenias is one of the most urgent and formidable ones which psychiatry has still to tackle. It is most urgent because of the large number of sufferers struck by the disease, made unfit for a successful life at an early age, and the distress imposed on them and their relatives. It is most formidable because our essential knowledge of the nature of this disease, or possibly group of diseases, is scanty and disorderly and opinions are conflicting and contradictory. This unsatisfactory state is made worse by the fact that there is quite an amount of disagreement on diagnosis, so that often the findings of different workers do not refer to comparable groups of patients (and conditions in which they are examined) which must add to the confusion, particularly when metabolic examinations are carried out. Too often “marginal psychoses“, and also not rarely, paranoid hallucinatory states with and without changes of the personality are called “schizophrenia”. The last-named states are not infrequently schizophrenoid reactions (or reactions of a schizoid person) to psychogenic causes or to potentially diagnosable physical disorders. On close clinical examination one would also find that the symptomatology of such cases is not that of idiopathic schizophrenia. In the “classical” schizophrenias of Kraepelin, Bleuler and Kleist, despite some discrepancies, the typical para-functions of feeling, willing, thinking and activity, usually accompanied by hallucinations, mainly auditory, and paranoid delusions are present and also a disturbance of the albumin/globulin ratio in C.S.F. and serum. In the absence of this mental and physical symptomatology the diagnosis of idiopathic schizophrenia should not be made (Fleischhacker et al. (7, 8)).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.