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To characterise multi-level obstruction in terms of prevalence, obstructive sleep apnoea severity and predictive factors, and to collect epidemiological data on upper airway morphology in obstructive sleep apnoea patients.
Retrospective review of 250 obstructive sleep apnoea patients.
On clinical examination, 171 patients (68.4 per cent) had multi-level obstruction, 49 (19.6 per cent) had single-level obstruction and 30 (12 per cent) showed no obstruction. Within each category of obstructive sleep apnoea severity, multi-level obstruction was more prevalent. Multi-level obstruction was associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (more than 30 events per hour) (p = 0.001). Obstructive sleep apnoea severity increased with the number of obstruction sites (correlation coefficient = 0.303, p < 0.001). Multi-level obstruction was more likely in younger (p = 0.042), male (p = 0.045) patients, with high body mass index (more than 30 kg/m2) (p < 0.001). Palatal (p = 0.004), tongue (p = 0.026) and lateral pharyngeal wall obstructions (p = 0.006) were associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea.
Multi-level obstruction is more prevalent in obstructive sleep apnoea and is associated with increased severity. Obstruction at certain anatomical levels contributes more towards obstructive sleep apnoea severity.