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We investigated intestinal trichomonads in western lowland gorillas, central chimpanzees and humans cohabiting the forest ecosystem of Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area in Central African Republic, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and SSU rRNA gene sequences. Trichomonads belonging to the genus Tetratrichomonas were detected in 23% of the faecal samples and in all host species. Different hosts were infected with different genotypes of Tetratrichomonas. In chimpanzees, we detected tetratrichomonads from ‘novel lineage 2’, which was previously reported mostly in captive and wild chimpanzees. In gorillas, we found two different genotypes of Tetratrichomonas. The ITS region sequences of the more frequent genotype were identical to the sequence found in a faecal sample of a wild western lowland gorilla from Cameroon. Sequences of the second genotype from gorillas were almost identical to sequences previously obtained from an anorexic French woman. We provide the first report of the presence of intestinal tetratrichomonads in asymptomatic, apparently healthy humans. Human tetratrichomonads belonged to the lineage 7, which was previously reported in domestic and wild pigs and a domestic horse. Our findings suggest that the ecology and spatial overlap among hominids in the tropical forest ecosystem has not resulted in exchange of intestinal trichomonads among these hosts.
Natural living conductive biofilms transport electrons between electrodes and cells, as well as among cells fixed within the film, catalyzing an array of reactions from acetate oxidation to CO2 reduction. Synthetic biology offers tools to modify or improve electron transport through biofilms, creating a new class of engineered living conductive materials. Engineered living conductive materials could be used in a range of applications for which traditional conducting polymers are not appropriate, including improved catalytic coatings for microbial fuel-cell electrodes, self-powered sensors for austere environments, and next-generation living components of bioelectronic devices that interact with the human microbiome.
The importance of emblem glyphs to Maya studies has long been recognized. Among these are emblems that have yet to be conclusively matched to archaeological sites. The Water Scroll emblem glyph is one such example, although it appears numerous times in the Classic Maya written corpus between the sixth and the eighth centuries. These many references are found at a variety of sites across the lowlands, attesting to the importance of this ancient kingdom and the kings who carried this title. In the present paper, we review the epigraphic and archaeological evidence and propose that this may be the royal title of the kings who reigned from Altun Ha, in the east central Maya lowlands, in what is now Belize. In so doing, we also begin to reconstruct the dynastic history of the Water Scroll kings, from the vantage of both local and foreign sources.
Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the evidence payers cited in their coverage policies for multi-gene panels and sequencing tests (panels), and to compare these findings with the evidence payers cited in their coverage policies for other types of medical interventions.
Methods: We used the University of California at San Francisco TRANSPERS Payer Coverage Registry to identify coverage policies for panels issued by five of the largest US private payers. We reviewed each policy and categorized the evidence cited within as: clinical studies, systematic reviews, technology assessments, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), budget impact studies, and clinical guidelines. We compared the evidence cited in these coverage policies for panels with the evidence cited in policies for other intervention types (pharmaceuticals, medical devices, diagnostic tests and imaging, and surgical interventions) as reported in a previous study.
Results: Fifty-five coverage policies for panels were included. On average, payers cited clinical guidelines in 84 percent of their coverage policies (range, 73–100 percent), clinical studies in 69 percent (50–87 percent), technology assessments 47 percent (33–86 percent), systematic reviews or meta-analyses 31 percent (7–71 percent), and CEAs 5 percent (0–7 percent). No payers cited budget impact studies in their policies. Payers less often cited clinical studies, systematic reviews, technology assessments, and CEAs in their coverage policies for panels than in their policies for other intervention types. Payers cited clinical guidelines in a comparable proportion of policies for panels and other technology types.
Conclusions: Payers in our sample less often cited clinical studies and other evidence types in their coverage policies for panels than they did in their coverage policies for other types of medical interventions.
We present multi–epoch VLBI observations of the methanol and water masers in the high–mass star formation region G 339.884−1.259, made using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). Our sub–milliarcsecond precision measurements trace the proper motions of individual maser features in the plane of the sky. When combined with the direct line–of–sight radial velocity (vlsr), these measure the 3 D gas kinematics of the associated high–mass star formation region, allowing us to probe the dynamical processes to within 1000 AU of the core.
Sh 2–71 appears to represent a diffuse, ellipsoidal nebulosity extending over a range Δα × Δδ = 1.7 = 3 arcmin2. Early spectroscopy by Glushkov et al (1975), and Chopinet and Lortet-Zuckerman (1976) suggested the presence of a high excitation central star, and Kaler (1983) has more recently determined Zanstra temperatures Tz(HeII) > 7.7 · 104 K. The observed central star clearly constitutes a much cooler companion, and luminosity variations in this source have been attributed to binary eclipse.
NGC 6537 is an unusual high excitation bipolar outflow source, with anomalous abundances indicative of a type I nebula. We have recently obtained a range of high resolution spectrophotometry for this source using the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma), together with narrow band optical imaging using the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma). As a consequence, it is apparent that the source optical morphology is suggestive of the presence of an hyperbolic shock outflow surface, similar to those observed in other BPN (e.g. NGC 6302, Hb 5). Line ratio maps also indicate the presence of extremely strong [Nii] emission at the periphery of the outflow, whilst expansion velocities are of order ∼ 400 km sec−1. These large shell expansion velocities may in turn be driven by an extremely high velocity wind, which in this case appears to extend over a range ΔV ≥ 3000 km sec−1.
Newcomb is a design concept for an astrometric optical interferometer satellite with a nominal single measurement accuracy of 100 microarcseconds. In a 30-month mission life, it will make scientifically interesting measurements of O stars, RR Lyrae and Cepheid distances, probe dark matter in our Galaxy via parallax measurements of K giants in the disk, establish a reference grid with internal consistency better than 50 microarcseconds, and lay the groundwork for the larger optical interferometers that are expected to produce a profusion of scientific results during the next century.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a programme of lesion surgery carried out on patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
This was a retrospective study looking at clinical and psychometric data from 45 patients with TRD who had undergone bilateral stereotactic anterior capsulotomy surgery over a period of 15 years, with the approval of the Mental Health Act Commission (37 with unipolar depression and eight with bipolar disorder). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after surgery was used as the primary outcome measure. The Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale was administered and cognitive aspects of executive and memory functions were also examined. We carried out a paired-samples t test on the outcome measures to determine any statistically significant change in the group as a consequence of surgery.
Patients improved on the clinical measure of depression after surgery by −21.20 points on the BDI with a 52% change. There were no significant cognitive changes post-surgery. Six patients were followed up in 2013 by phone interview and reported a generally positive experience. No major surgical complications occurred.
With the limitations of an uncontrolled, observational study, our data suggest that capsulotomy can be an effective treatment for otherwise TRD. Performance on neuropsychological tests did not deteriorate.
We gathered a multiwavelength dataset of two well-known LBVs. We found a complex mass-loss, with evidence of variability, such as has been seen previously. In addition, our data reveal signatures of collimated stellar winds. We propose a new scenario for these two stars where the nebula shaping is influenced by the presence of a companion star and/or fast rotation.
Halophilic Archaea are known to tolerate multiple extreme conditions on Earth and have been proposed as models for astrobiology. In order to assess the importance of cold-adaptation of these microorganisms in surviving stratospheric conditions, we launched live, liquid cultures of two species, the mesophilic model Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and the cold-adapted Antarctic isolate Halorubrum lacusprofundi ATCC 49239, on helium balloons. After return to Earth, the cold-adapted species showed nearly complete survival while the mesophilic species exhibited slightly reduced viability. Parallel studies found that the cold-adapted species was also better able to survive freezing and thawing in the laboratory. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis was used to compare the two haloarchaea at optimum growth temperatures versus low temperatures supporting growth. The cold-adapted species displayed perturbation of a majority of genes upon cold temperature exposure, divided evenly between up-regulated and down-regulated genes, while the mesophile exhibited perturbation of only a fifth of its genes, with nearly two-thirds being down-regulated. These results underscore the importance of genetic responses of H. lacusprofundi to cold temperature for enhanced survival in the stratosphere.
We have observed a broad range of post-main-sequence, type I and irregular nebulae using the intermediate dispersion spectrograph of the Isaac Newton Telescope (La Palma, Spain). Many of these show evidence for high velocity mass outflow, and in particular we find: (i) High velocity (∼ 500 km s−1), and appreciable mass loss outflows within ≅ 10 arcsecs of M2-9 and SH 2-71; (ii) Substantial shell expansion velocities in NGC 7026 (∼ 102 km s−1) with evidence for an appreciable driving wind at the central star, velocity ≅ 103 km s−1; (iii) Jet outflows extending over a range 260 km s−1 in Hb 5, with a distinctly tilted line structure suggestive of shock compression at the edges of an outflow cavity; and finally (iv) similarly strong winds (2 × 10 km s−1) from each member of a WC binary in the nucleus of NGC 6905. The binary separation is approximately 3.6 arcseconds, and the core is further enveloped by two, apparently co-spatial shells, expansion velocity 90 km s−1, and separation ΔV ≅ 130 km s−1. The [N II] emission for the shells is extraordinarily weak, although ansae located outside of the shells, and perpendicular to the binary major axis, possess I([N II]λ6584) > I(HIλ6563). We propose that the two shells were ejected at differing phases of binary evolution.
A knowledge of the formation rate of planetary nebulae is crucial to our understanding of a wide range of physical environments and processes, and as such has been fitfully investigated over the last forty or so years. The elemental composition of the interstellar medium, for instance, and in particular the seeding of the IS medium by CNO and s-process materials, turns out to be rather sensitively dependent upon the local rate of PN formation χ(PN) (Salpeter, 1978, Pottasch, 1984; Tinsley, 1978; and Wood et al, 1983). Similarly, and to varying degrees, the ionisation balance of the I.S. medium (cf. Pottasch, 1984; Salpeter, 1978), composition and number density of I.S. grains (Natta and Panagia, 1981), and ultimately the galactic star formation rate (cf. Miller and Scalo, 1979) can all (more or less directly) trace a dependency upon χ(PN). Finally, χ(PN) has proven historically important in establishing the evolutionary status of PN (cf. Abell and Goldreich, 1966), and is expected to be directly related to the rate of formation of white dwarfs, the death-rate of AGB-type stars (Mira variables, OH/IR sources), and the main-sequence turn-off rate in the mass range 2 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 10, some 1010 years ago.
We provide detailed contextual information on 25 14C dates for unusually well-preserved archaeological and paleontological remains from Daisy Cave. Paleontological materials, including faunal and floral remains, have been recovered from deposits spanning roughly the past 16,000 yr, while archaeological materials date back to ca. 10,500 BP. Multidisciplinary investigations at the site provide a detailed record of environmental and cultural changes on San Miguel Island during this time period. This record includes evidence for the local or regional extinction of a number of animal species, as well as some of the earliest evidence for the human use of boats and other maritime activities in the Americas. Data from Daisy Cave contribute to a growing body of evidence that Paleoindians had adapted to a wide variety of New World environments prior to 10,000 PB. Analysis of shell-charcoal pairs, along with isotopic analysis of associated marine shells, supports the general validity of marine shell dating, but also provides evidence for temporal fluctuations in the reservoir effect within the Santa Barbara Channel region.
The first meeting of the IntCal04 working group took place at Queen's University Belfast from April 15 to 17, 2002. The participants are listed as co-authors of this report. The meeting considered criteria for the acceptance of data into the next official calibration dataset, the importance of including reliable estimates of uncertainty in both the radiocarbon ages and the cal ages, and potential methods for combining datasets. This preliminary report summarizes the criteria that were discussed, but does not yet give specific recommendations for inclusion or exclusion of individual datasets.