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This chapter provides a thorough survey of the theme of heterosexual love in the fragments of Euripides, demonstrating how many of these plays – particularly Andromeda, Oedipus, Protesilaus and Antigone – offer glimpses of a different permutation of tragic marriage. These plays dramatise marital or premarital relationships in which the female partner could play an active and sometimes assertive role, and which, even when placed within dramatic contexts that render the union itself problematic, may be termed reciprocal and even romantic.The widening of the scope of enquiry demonstrates that the more positive portrayal of spousal bonds that we find in Euripides’ Helen is not an anomaly within the genre: tragic marriage did not always have to be portrayed a site of friction and disaster, and in fact it was some of Euripides’ most overtly erotic and romantic plays that left a distinctive mark on their original and later audiences.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in different regions of the brain in 27 patients with DAT. Significant correlations were found between rCBF in left parieto-temporooccipital regions and psychometric test scores. Patients with hemisphere asymmetry in SPECT performed worse on psychometric tests. SPECT did not permit prediction of or differentiation between depressive and psychotic symptoms.
Though they are often overlooked or studied for diff erent reasons, St. Augustine's Cassiciacum dialogues have a subtle yet important political dimension. Much of Augustine's conversation with his interlocutors implicitly hinges on matters concerning political philosophy, as does the very dialogue format Augustine chooses. Yet on the other hand, the focal points of the dialogues are essentially nonpolitical, and some of Augustine's statements can be construed as hostile to civic life and to any thoughtful refl ection on the best political order. Th is essay argues that these apparent inconsistencies are not signs of a contradictory attitude but reveal a three-pronged strategy by Augustine to forge a properly Christian attitude toward political life, a strategy that involves (1) debunking patriotic fervor, (2) infl aming the love of truth, and (3) reengaging the civitas from a higher perspective.
Any attempt to cull a cogent political theory from St. Augustine's first four extant writings (commonly referred to as the Cassiciacum dialogues) is bound to be met with a justifiable dose of skepticism. Following J. N. Figgis, scholars have tended to focus on The City of God for an understanding of Augustinian politics, while even those endeavors to extricate Augustine's political thought from the whole of his works generally ignore the early dialogues. Herbert A. Deane, in his Political and Social Ideas of St. Augustine, makes only cursory references to them, as do Robert A. Markus and R. W. Dyson. Other, less conventional treatments of the topic, such as John Milbank's provocative Theology and Social Theory and Jean Bethke Elshtain's self-reflective Augustine and the Limit of Politics, have not changed this basic taxonomy.
A preoccupation with The City of God is certainly understandable. Augustine's magnum opus is also a magnes opus, a majestic magnet drawing the politically minded reader to itself. Nevertheless, as this essay will attempt to demonstrate, there remain compelling reasons for reassessing the value of the Cassiciacum dialogues as windows into Augustine's political thought. Such a renewed appreciation is particularly important given the likely prospect (which it is also the burden of this essay to demonstrate) that these dialogues are not fully intelligible unless they are viewed in light of classical political philosophy and Augustine's conversation with it. To justify these claims, we will first offer a crude overview of the ways in which the Cassiciacum dialogues may or may not be deemed “political.”
Modern high-throughput molecular and analytical tools offer exciting opportunities to gain a mechanistic understanding of unique traits of weeds. During the past decade, tremendous progress has been made within the weed science discipline using genomic techniques to gain deeper insights into weedy traits such as invasiveness, hybridization, and herbicide resistance. Though the adoption of newer “omics” techniques such as proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics has been slow, applications of these omics platforms to study plants, especially agriculturally important crops and weeds, have been increasing over the years. In weed science, these platforms are now used more frequently to understand mechanisms of herbicide resistance, weed resistance evolution, and crop–weed interactions. Use of these techniques could help weed scientists to further reduce the knowledge gaps in understanding weedy traits. Although these techniques can provide robust insights about the molecular functioning of plants, employing a single omics platform can rarely elucidate the gene-level regulation and the associated real-time expression of weedy traits due to the complex and overlapping nature of biological interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the different omics technologies to give a better understanding of molecular functioning of biological systems. This multidimensional integrated approach can therefore offer new avenues for better understanding of questions of interest to weed scientists. This review offers a retrospective and prospective examination of omics platforms employed to investigate weed physiology and novel approaches and new technologies that can provide holistic and knowledge-based weed management strategies for future.
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an invasive perennial weed infesting range and recreational lands of North America. Previous research and omics projects with E. esula have helped develop it as a model for studying many aspects of perennial plant development and response to abiotic stress. However, the lack of an assembled genome for E. esula has limited the power of previous transcriptomics studies to identify functional promoter elements and transcription factor binding sites. An assembled genome for E. esula would enhance our understanding of signaling processes controlling plant development and responses to environmental stress and provide a better understanding of genetic factors impacting weediness traits, evolution, and herbicide resistance. A comprehensive transcriptome database would also assist in analyzing future RNA-seq studies and is needed to annotate and assess genomic sequence assemblies. Here, we assembled and annotated 56,234 unigenes from an assembly of 589,235 RNA-seq-derived contigs and a previously published Sanger-sequenced expressed sequence tag collection. The resulting data indicate that we now have sequence for >90% of the expressed E. esula protein-coding genes. We also assembled the gene space of E. esula by using a limited coverage (18X) genomic sequence database. In this study, the programs Velvet and Trinity produced the best gene-space assemblies based on representation of expressed and conserved eukaryotic genes. The results indicate that E. esula contains as much as 23% repetitive sequences, of which 11% are unique. Our sequence data were also sufficient for assembling a full chloroplast and partial mitochondrial genome. Further, marker analysis identified more than 150,000 high-quality variants in our E. esula L-RNA–scaffolded, whole-genome, Trinity-assembled genome. Based on these results, E. esula appears to have limited heterozygosity. This study provides a blueprint for low-cost genomic assemblies in weed species and new resources for identifying conserved and novel promoter regions among coordinately expressed genes of E. esula.
We present the first systematic assessment of the population, demography and distribution of the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii, in Unguja in the Zanzibar archipelago, based on a survey effort of 4,725 hours. We estimate the total population comprises 5,862 individuals in 342 groups (mean group size 17.12); 3.4 times the mean of all previous estimates. We calculated a total area of occupancy of 376 km2, with 4,042 individuals living within protected areas. Mean group sizes were significantly higher within protected areas (20.57) than outside (12.80). The number of adult females was 3,179 (54.21%), with a mean of 9.29 per group, and the number of adult males was 932 (15.89%), with a mean of 2.71 per group, giving a ratio of 3.31 adult females to adult males. This ratio was significantly lower outside protected areas. The total number of infants was 958 (16.34%), with a mean of 2.80 per group, and the number of subadults/juveniles was 793 (13.52%), with a mean of 2.32 per group, giving ratios of 0.30 infants to adult females, and 0.25 subadults/juveniles to adult females. The results indicate that P. kirkii is resilient and thriving far better than assumed. However, recruitment is low and the population may be in decline, with individuals outside protected areas most at risk. We tentatively support the categorization of P. kirkii as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, argue for greater protected area status for southern Uzi, Vundwe and Mchamgamle, and discuss conservation implications for this charismatic flagship species.
Tragedy—the word conjures up a multitude of associations, some clichéd. By calling something a tragedy, whether a literary work or an event in a person's or a society's experience, one may suggest suffering and trauma but also grandeur and endurance and nobility. A tragedy is something horrible and yet, paradoxically, edifying. For those who are morally inclined, it demonstrates the punishment that befalls the proud or the flawed; for those more fatalistic, it suggests humanity's unmerited but inevitable suffering in an indifferent universe. To some people, certainly, tragedy as a literary genre is old and boring, loved by the Greeks but of little relevance now.
Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)
We developed two leafy spurge bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)
libraries that together represent approximately 5× coverage of the leafy
spurge genome. The BAC libraries have an average insert size of
approximately 143 kb, and copies of the library and filters for
hybridization-based screening are publicly available through the Arizona
Genomics Institute. These libraries were used to clone full-length genomic
copies of an AP2/ERF transcription factor of the A4
subfamily of DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEINS
(DREB) known to be differentially expressed in crown buds of
leafy spurge during endodormancy, a DORMANCY ASSOCIATED
MADS-BOX (DAM) gene, and several
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes.
Sequencing of these BAC clones revealed the presence of multiple
FT genes in leafy spurge. Sequencing also provided
evidence that two different DAM transcripts expressed in
crown buds of leafy spurge during endo- and eco-dormancy result from
alternate splicing of a single DAM gene. Sequence data from
the FT promoters was used to identify several conserved
elements previously recognized in Arabidopsis, as well as potential novel
transcription factor binding sites that may regulate FT.
These leafy spurge BAC libraries represent a new genomics-based tool that
complements existing genomics resources for the study of plant growth and
development in this model perennial weed. Furthermore, phylogenetic
footprinting using genes identified with this resource demonstrate the
usefulness of studying weedy species to further our general knowledge of
agriculturally important genes.
Leafy spurge seeds are responsive to alternating temperature rather than
constant temperature for germination. Transcriptome changes of dry leafy
spurge seeds and seeds imbibed for 1 and 3 d at 20 C constant (C) and 20 :
30 C alternating (A) temperature were determined by microarray analysis to
examine temperature responsiveness. Principal component analysis revealed
differences in the transcriptome of imbibed seeds based on the temperature
regime. Computational methods in bioinformatics parsed the data into
overrepresented AraCyc pathways and gene regulation subnetworks providing
biological context to temperature responses. After 1 d of imbibition, the
degradation of starch and sucrose leading to anaerobic respiration were
common pathways at both temperature regimes. Several overrepresented
pathways unique to 1 d A were associated with generation of energy, reducing
power, and carbon substrates; several of these pathways remained
overrepresented and up-regulated at 3 d A. At 1 d C, pathways for the
phytohormones jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids were uniquely
overrepresented. There was little similarity in overrepresented pathways at
1 d C between leafy spurge and arabidopsis seeds,
indicating species-specific effects upon imbibition of dry seeds.
Overrepresented gene subnetworks at 1 d and 3 d at both temperature regimes
related to signaling processes and stress responses. A major overrepresented
subnetwork unique to 1 d C related to photomorphogenesis via the E3
ubiquitin ligase COP1. At 1 d A, major overrepresented subnetworks involved
circadian rhythm via LHY and TOC1 proteins and expression of stress-related
genes such as DREB1A, which is subject to circadian
regulation. Collectively, substantial differences were observed in the
transcriptome of leafy spurge seeds imbibed under conditions that affect the
capacity to germinate.
Epidurals are the most effective form of analgesia for the laboring parturient; however, pain relief has come with potential risks. Ongoing maintenance of analgesia may be with any number of techniques, which include but are not limited to continuous infusions, patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), and programmed intermittent epidural boluses. Ambulatory epidurals promote the retention of urinary function and reduce the risk of urinary catheterization during labor. PCEA has proven to be both safe and effective. The most consistent benefit appears to be decreased motor block with ropivacaine. Whether initiated or not with a combined spinal-epidural (CSE), ongoing analgesia with low-dose infusions or PCEAs confers these same benefits. Evidence suggests PCEA protocols that use a low-dose background infusion in combination with larger boluses with longer lockout intervals may be superior.
In this article, Ontario's stroke rehabilitation system is used to exemplify the challenges faced by rehabilitation and healthcare systems across Canada who are attempting to provide quality care to patients in the face of increasing demands. Currently, Ontario's rehabilitation system struggles in its efforts to provide accessible and comprehensive care to patients recovering from stroke. We begin our exploration by identifying both the primary stakeholders and the underlying factors that have contributed to the current challenges. The framework put forward in the Canadian Medical Association's recommendations for transformation is then used to suggest a vision for a more patient-focused system incorporating three key principles: a broader perspective, a patient-first approach, and greater unity. The use of health information technology, proper incentives, and greater accountability are discussed as mechanisms to improve the quality and efficiency of care.