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Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties.
A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed.
There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review.
Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.
We present a case of a patient who had undergone embolisation and resection of a left glomus jugulare tumour, who presented three weeks post-operatively with magnetic resonance venography confirmed symptomatic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
We present a case report and a review of the world literature concerning glomus jugulare tumours and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.
A 42-year-old man presented with blurred vision and reduced Snellen visual acuity just three weeks after glomus jugulare tumour surgery. Fundoscopy revealed bilateral haemorrhagic optic disc oedema. Urgent magnetic resonance venography confirmed a left lateral venous sinus thrombosis. It was felt that this was responsible for inadequate cerebrospinal fluid drainage, resulting in raised intracranial pressure and papilloedema.
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first account of a magnetic resonance venography confirmed venous sinus thrombosis and secondary papilloedema following glomus jugulare tumour surgery. Patients undergoing surgery involving resection or manipulation of the internal jugular vein may be at higher risk of developing thrombosis superior to the level of resection, and magnetic resonance venography ought to be considered an important diagnostic adjunct.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux is perhaps the most extensively researched laryngology topic of the last decade. It has been suggested that some supraoesophageal symptoms, most notably asthma and laryngospasm, may be associated with night-time, or supine, reflux. The aim of this review was to assess the levels of evidence regarding a correlation between night-time reflux, snoring and apnoea.
A Medline search was performed using the terms ‘reflux’, ‘night-time’, ‘larynx’, ‘gastroesophageal’, ‘laryngopharyngeal’, ‘sleep’, ‘apnoea’, ‘snoring’ and ‘ear nose throat’. The retrieved literature was reviewed, focusing on randomised and non-randomised, controlled, prospective trials. Papers on both paediatric and adult populations were included. Non-English language papers were excluded.
We found no randomised, controlled trials or meta-analyses addressing the possible correlation between reflux and snoring and/or apnoea.
The role of night-time reflux in paediatric and adult snoring and apnoea is well described in the literature, but is based on poor levels of evidence from uncontrolled studies and case reports.
Inverted nasal papilloma is a benign tumour with variable biological behaviour. It is a unique neoplasm and is often difficult to manage, being characterised by a tendency to recur following excision, an association with malignancy and an ability to destroy bone. Radiological diagnosis has traditionally been based on computed tomography, but it is often impossible to differentiate between polyps with entrapped debris and inverted nasal papilloma. Magnetic resonance imaging, especially T2-weighted images, is perhaps a better tool in differentiating inverted nasal papilloma from other nasal lesions, and has recently been advocated as the imaging modality of choice.
To review the evidence on the ideal imaging modality for pre-operative planning of surgery for patients with histologically proven inverted nasal papilloma.
Materials and methods:
A systematic review of studies was undertaken, focusing on radiological assessment of inverted nasal papilloma (primary and recurrent). All English language articles were potentially included in the review. However, we excluded single case reports, case series, pictorial essays, ‘teaching’ reviews and reviews of inverted nasal papilloma not focusing on pre-operative imaging.
Sixteen studies were identified based on our search strategy. Only 10 fulfilled our criteria. Computed tomography scanning was the standard imaging modality of choice for assessing sinus involvement of inverted papilloma and for planning the extent of surgery. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were able to distinguish tumour (intermediate signal) from inflammatory tissues (bright signal), but not post-operative scarring from recurrent tumour. No studies were found which compared the specificity and sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the accurate pre-operative identification of the extent of inverted papilloma.
There is currently not enough evidence to suggest one sole modality as providing optimum imaging for inverted nasal papilloma. Computed tomography remains the imaging modality of first choice for inverted nasal papilloma, despite certain disadvantages. Magnetic resonance imaging is able to distinguish tumour from inflammation and is advocated as a better tool for recurrent tumour, but bone destruction of sinus walls is less easy to recognise, compared with computed tomography. Evaluation of sinus tumours usually involves both imaging modalities, and inverted nasal papilloma should be included within this pathological group. The cohort of patients is usually small, so cost-effectiveness should not generally be an issue when considering whether to use computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or both. A well structured, prospective study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography for pre-operative planning of histologically proven inverted nasal papilloma.
To demonstrate the importance of a detailed history when assessing patients with a repeated pattern of foreign body ingestion.
A 19-year-old woman presented to our department following accidental ingestion of a teaspoon. On further questioning, she admitted to a habit of binge-eating followed by self-induced vomiting, in order to avoid weight gain; she blamed this behaviour on a stressful relationship with her partner. She also had one previous episode of accidental ingestion of a plastic spoon, which had been removed by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy. The patient underwent an uneventful rigid oesophagoscopy and foreign body removal. During post-operative recovery, she admitted that she had suffered for years with bulimia and anorexia nervosa. She was discharged home after appropriate psychiatric counselling, and follow up was arranged.
Oesophageal foreign bodies are commonly encountered in otolaryngology practice. Such circumstances are often compounded by pre-existing psychiatric problems such as bulimia and/or anorexia nervosa. Patients with bulimia may often present with a very similar pattern of multiple episodes of ingestion of large foreign bodies. Identification of this eating disorder (especially when there is a recurrent history of large, accidentally ingested foreign bodies) and prompt psychiatric referral is essential for efficient long-term management of this condition.
We report a case of an epidermotropic CD8+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which initially presented as an ulcerated lesion of the pinna. Although T-cell lymphomas may present as cutaneous lesions, the ear is rarely involved. This uncommon presentation and the need for multiple biopsies means that the diagnosis of these lesions may be delayed or missed. A high index of suspicion is required when evaluating cutaneous lesions in the head and neck area.
To assess the evidence surrounding the use of certain complementary supplements in otolaryngology. We specifically focussed on four commonly used supplements: spirulina, Ginkgo biloba, Vertigoheel® and nutritional supplements (cod liver oil, multivitamins and pineapple enzyme).
Materials and methods:
A systematic review of the English and foreign language literature. Inclusion criteria: in vivo human studies. Exclusion criteria: animal trials, in vitro studies and case reports. We also excluded other forms of ‘alternative medicine’ such as reflexology, acupuncture and other homeopathic remedies.
Lack of common outcome measures prevented a formal meta-analysis. Three studies on the effects of spirulina in allergy, rhinitis and immunomodulation were found. One was a double-blind, placebo, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) of patients with allergic rhinitis, demonstrating positive effects in patients fed spirulina for 12 weeks. The other two studies, although non-randomised, also reported a positive role for spirulina in mucosal immunity. Regarding the use of Ginkgo biloba in tinnitus, a Cochrane review published in 2004 showed no evidence for this. The one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that followed confirmed this finding. Regarding the use of Vertigoheel in vertigo, two double-blind RCTs and a meta-analysis were identified. The first RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was equally effective in reducing the severity, duration and frequency of vertigo compared with betahistine. The second RCT suggested that Vertigoheel was a suitable alternative to G biloba in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vertigo. A meta-analysis of only four clinical trials confirms that Vertigoheel was equally effective compared with betahistine, G biloba and dimenhydrinate. Regarding multivitamins and sinusitis, two small paediatric pilot studies reported a positive response for chronic sinusitis and otitis media following a course of multivitamins and cod liver oil. Regarding bromelain (pineapple enzyme) and sinusitis, one randomised, multicentre trial including 116 children compared bromelain monotherapy to bromelain with standard therapy and standard therapy alone, for the treatment of acute sinusitis. The bromelain monotherapy group showed a faster recovery compared with the other groups.
The positive effects of spirulina in allergic rhinitis and of Vertigoheel in vertigo are based on good levels of evidence, but larger trials are required. There is overwhelming evidence that G biloba may play no role in tinnitus. There is limited evidence for the use of multivitamins in sinus symptoms, and larger randomised trials are required.
We present a novel method of aspirating a peritonsillar abscess in a patient with severe trismus. In our experience, this method is efficient, allows good access to the peritonsillar area and facilitates rapid resolution of the trismus before definitive drainage can be performed.
Lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas are relatively uncommon congenital malformations of the lymphatic system which usually present in the first years of childhood. Presentation in adult life is rare. We present a case of cervical adult cystic hygroma and discuss radiological and histopathological features as well as the management of these neck masses.
We present a simple method for preparing an ear wick for treating otitis externa in ENT outpatient clinics. In our experience, this method is efficient, economical and clean, and ensures an equal distribution of the medication along the wick.
We report the case of a 72-year-old male presenting with a papillary adenocarcinoma of the middle ear. He had had a similar tumour excised from the ipsilateral nasopharynx seven years previously with no evidence of local recurrence. We conclude that this middle ear lesion possibly represents a second tumour. No record of such a case has been reported previously in the literature. We discuss presentation and management and highlight the need for close follow-up of these patients.
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