To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy.
Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model.
Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001).
The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.
Voice restoration after laryngopharyngectomy can be achieved with an autologous ileocolic flap. We have observed that the length of the flap influences vocal outcome. This investigation aimed to evaluate the association between ileocolic flap length and vocal quality after laryngopharyngectomy.
The charts of patients who underwent voice rehabilitation with an ileocolic flap after laryngopharyngectomy between 1 January 2011 and 30 December 2012 were abstracted. The length of ileum segment in the ileocolic flap was stratified, and voice outcome was evaluated three months post-operatively, while adjusting for confounding variables.
There was a significant association between flap length and loudness, maximum phonation time and sound pressure level (p < 0.05). All three parameters were best in the 10 cm length group.
Voice rehabilitation after laryngopharyngectomy is possible with an ileocolic flap. The optimal ileocolic flap contains a 10 cm ileum segment. Complications are frequent but amenable to revision surgery.
To examine chronic non-granulomatous supraglottitis, a rare disorder of uncertain aetiology with few reported cases in the literature.
We describe two cases of chronic non-granulomatous supraglottitis that led to persistent respiratory compromise. Patients underwent extensive investigation that failed to reveal a definitive diagnosis.
In patients suffering from chronic inflammation of the supraglottic larynx without evidence of infection, neoplasm or granulomatous disease, many disorders must be ruled out in order to diagnose chronic non-granulomatous supraglottitis, which is a diagnosis of exclusion. We review the literature on this rare entity, discuss current management strategies, and suggest an algorithm for diagnostic investigation.
The anatomy and function of the oropharynx and larynx during deglutition can be assessed using the flexible endoscope, but this evaluation does not provide information on the oesophagus. Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing enables extended dysphagia evaluation.
To assess the diagnostic utility of guided observation of oesophageal swallowing in the evaluation of dysphagia.
Retrospective case series.
Procedures for guided observation of oesophageal swallowing were reviewed for oesophageal findings and compared with fluoroscopy and manometry.
Twenty-one patients underwent guided observation of oesophageal swallowing and concurrent videofluoroscopy and/or manometry. No complications of the former procedure occurred. The results of guided observation of oesophageal swallowing concurred with those of fluoroscopy in 15/21 cases (71 per cent) and with those of manometry in five of six (83 per cent) cases. Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing revealed anatomic pathology contributing to dysphagia in 15/21 (71 per cent) patients. The procedure identified pathology not detected by fluoroscopy and manometry in 13/21 (62 per cent) patients.
Guided observation of oesophageal swallowing appears to be a safe diagnostic tool with which to evaluate the oesophageal phase of deglutition.
A reliable grading system allows the clinician to classify disease severity, monitor progress and evaluate treatment efficacy. There is no currently accepted grading system for vocal process granuloma of the larynx.
To evaluate the reliability of a new grading system for vocal process granuloma.
All vocal process granuloma images from a digital laryngeal image library were abstracted. Granulomas were graded on a one to four system, as follows: grade one, sessile, non-ulcerative granuloma limited to vocal process; grade two, pedunculated or ulcerated granuloma limited to vocal process; grade three, granuloma extending past vocal process but not crossing midline of airway in fully abducted position; and grade four, granuloma extending past vocal process and past the midline of the airway in the fully abducted position. The granulomas were additionally graded A if unilateral and B if bilateral. Two laryngologists and two otolaryngology residents rated the granulomas on two separate occasions. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated with the kappa (κ) test statistic.
Thirty-five vocal process granulomas were identified. The percentage intra-observer agreement for the two laryngologists was 97 and 100 per cent (κ = 0.94 and 1.00, respectively). The percentage inter-observer agreement between the two laryngologists was 91 per cent (κ = 0.83). The percentage intra-observer agreement for the two residents was 89 and 91 per cent (κ = 0.83 and 0.77, respectively). The percentage inter-observer agreement between the two residents was 83 per cent (κ = 0.67).
The proposed grading system for vocal process granuloma displayed excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability among residents and experienced laryngologists.
Tracheoesophageal puncture is recognised as an effective and reliable method for voice restoration following total laryngectomy. Several techniques have been described, ranging from rigid oesophagoscopy under general anaesthesia to more recent endoscopic techniques utilising intravenous sedation or local anaesthetic. We describe our technique for secondary tracheoesophageal puncture utilising unsedated transnasal oesophagoscopy in an office setting.
Retrospective review of all total laryngectomy patients undergoing in-office transnasal oesophagoscopy-assisted tracheoesophageal puncture between October 1 2004 and December 31 2006.
Eleven patients undergoing transnasal oesophagoscopy-guided tracheoesophageal puncture were identified. Successful tracheoesophageal puncture placement was achieved in 10 of 11 patients (91 per cent). In one patient tracheoesophageal puncture could not be performed due to anatomic constraints. One patient had bleeding from the puncture site requiring silver nitrate cautery. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Voice results were satisfactory in all cases.
Transnasal oesophagoscopy-guided tracheoesophageal puncture provides a simple, safe option for secondary voice rehabilitation in laryngectomy patients.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.