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Zn is an essential nutrient for humans; however, a sensitive biomarker to assess Zn status has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and sensitivity of Zn transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to Zn exposure ex vivo and to habitual Zn intake in human subjects. In study 1, human PBMCs were cultured for 24 h with 0–50 µm ZnSO4 with or without 5 µm N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and mRNA expression of SLC30A1-10, SLC39A1-14, MT1 subtypes (A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M and X), MT2A, MT3 and MT4 mRNA was determined. In study 2, fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers (31·9 (sd 13·8) years, BMI 25·7 (sd 2·9) kg/m2) completed a FFQ, blood was collected, PBMCs were isolated and mRNA expression of selected Zn transporters and MT isoforms was determined. Study 1: MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1L, MT1M, MT1X, MT2A and SLC30A1 increased with increasing concentrations of Zn and declined with the addition of TPEN. Study 2: Average daily Zn intake was 16·0 (sd 5·3) mg/d (range: 9–31 mg/d), and plasma Zn concentrations were 15·5 (SD 2·8) μmol/l (range 11–23 μmol/l). PBMC MT2A was positively correlated with dietary Zn intake (r 0·306, P = 0·03) and total Zn intake (r 0·382, P < 0·01), whereas plasma Zn was not (P > 0·05 for both). Findings suggest that MT2A mRNA in PBMCs reflects dietary Zn intake in healthy adults and may be a component in determining Zn status.
The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose existed in Nottingham for over 60 years, but there is little knowledge or documentation regarding its existence.
The following resources were searched to find out more about the hospital: the Nottinghamshire Archives; Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham Libraries; and Nottingham Central Library. Information was also obtained from the founders’ relatives.
The hospital was founded in 1886, by Dr Donald Stewart, supported by political and clerical leaders. Initially, it treated out-patients only; in-patients were admitted for surgical treatment from 1905. Suitable accommodation was purchased in 1925, on Goldsmith Street, but required much building extension and alteration. Building restrictions during and following World War II prevented expansion. The National Hospital Survey conducted in 1945 considered the clinical work undertaken to be of a minor character, and recommended closure and amalgamation with the services provided by the Nottingham General Hospital. The hospital closed in 1947.
The specialist hospital was deemed unfit and unsuitable to compete with the comprehensive service provided by the Nottingham General Hospital.
Cognitive deficits affect a significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Problems with sustained attention have been found independent of mood state and the causes are unclear. We aimed to investigate whether physical parameters such as activity levels, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) may be contributing factors.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and wore a triaxial accelerometer for 21 days which collected information on physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Ex-Gaussian analyses were used to characterise reaction time distributions. We used hierarchical regression analyses to examine whether physical activity, BMI, circadian rhythm, and sleep predicted variance in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Neither physical activity, BMI, nor circadian rhythm predicted significant variance on any of the cognitive tasks. However, the presence of a sleep abnormality significantly predicted a higher intra-individual variability of the reaction time distributions on the Attention Network Task.
This study suggests that there is an association between sleep abnormalities and cognition in BD, with little or no relationship with physical activity, BMI, and circadian rhythm.
Major depression (MD) is often characterised as a categorical disorder; however, observational studies comparing sub-threshold and clinical depression suggest MD is continuous. Many of these studies do not explore the full continuum and are yet to consider genetics as a risk factor. This study sought to understand if polygenic risk for MD could provide insight into the continuous nature of depression.
Factor analysis on symptom-level data from the UK Biobank (N = 148 957) was used to derive continuous depression phenotypes which were tested for association with polygenic risk scores (PRS) for a categorical definition of MD (N = 119 692).
Confirmatory factor analysis showed a five-factor hierarchical model, incorporating 15 of the original 18 items taken from the PHQ-9, GAD-7 and subjective well-being questionnaires, produced good fit to the observed covariance matrix (CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.038, SRMR = 0.031). MD PRS associated with each factor score (standardised β range: 0.057–0.064) and the association remained when the sample was stratified into case- and control-only subsets. The case-only subset had an increased association compared to controls for all factors, shown via a significant interaction between lifetime MD diagnosis and MD PRS (p value range: 2.23 × 10−3–3.94 × 10−7).
An association between MD PRS and a continuous phenotype of depressive symptoms in case- and control-only subsets provides support against a purely categorical phenotype; indicating further insights into MD can be obtained when this within-group variation is considered. The stronger association within cases suggests this variation may be of particular importance.
Attentional bias is an important psychological mechanism that has been extensively explored within the anxiety literature and more recently in chronic pain. Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic pain suggest an overlap in the mechanisms of these two conditions. the current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in individuals with CFS, compared to healthy controls. the study also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and how it was related to attentional bias.
Two participant groups, CFS (n = 27) and healthy control (n = 35), completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli (words and pictures) presented at 500ms and 1250ms, and an Attention Network Test measuring alerting, orienting and executive attention. Participants also completed a series of standard self-report measures.
When compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias towards threat-words, but not pictures, regardless of stimulus duration. This was not related to anxiety or depression. the CFS group was also significantly impaired on executive attention compared to the controls. Post-hoc analyses indicated that only CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed a threat-word bias when compared to controls and CFS individuals with good executive attention.
The findings from this study suggest that CFS individuals show enhanced attentional biases for health-threat stimuli, which may contribute to the perpetuation of the condition. Moreover, the attentional biases in CFS are dependent on an individual's capacity to voluntarily control their attention.
Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare occurrence but can be life-threatening. Most aortic thrombosis in neonates is related to umbilical artery catheters. A case of a neonate with a spontaneous aortic thrombosis is described here along with a comprehensive review of the literature for cases of neonatal aortic thrombosis not related to any intravascular device or procedure. The aetiologies of these spontaneous thromboses and the relevance of hypercoagulable disorders are discussed. The cases were analysed for odds of death by treatment method adjusted for era. The reference treatment method was thrombolysis and anticoagulation. No other treatment modality had significantly lower odds than the reference. Surgery alone had higher odds for death than the reference, but this may be confounded by severity of case. The management recommendations for clinicians encountering neonates with spontaneous neonatal aortic thrombosis are discussed.
A new transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation method that utilizes a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) methods and ultramicrotomy is demonstrated. This combined method retains the benefit of site-specific sampling by FIB but eliminates ion beam-induced damage except at specimen edges and allows recovery of many consecutive sections. It is best applied to porous and/or fine-grained materials that are amenable to ultramicrotomy but are located in bulk samples that are not. The method is ideal for unique samples from which every specimen is precious, and we demonstrate its utility on fine-grained material from the one-of-a-kind Paris meteorite. Compared with a specimen prepared by conventional FIB methods, the final sections are uniformly thin and free from re-deposition and curtaining artifacts common in FIB specimens prepared from porous, heterogeneous samples.
The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lower limb loss (LL) on mental workload by assessing neurocognitive measures in individuals with unilateral transtibial (TT) versus those with transfemoral (TF) LL while dual-task walking under varying cognitive demand. Methods: Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as participants performed a task of varying cognitive demand while being seated or walking (i.e., varying physical demand). Results: The findings revealed both groups of participants (TT LL vs. TF LL) exhibited a similar EEG theta synchrony response as either the cognitive or the physical demand increased. Also, while individuals with TT LL maintained similar performance on the cognitive task during seated and walking conditions, those with TF LL exhibited performance decrements (slower response times) on the cognitive task during the walking in comparison to the seated conditions. Furthermore, those with TF LL neither exhibited regional differences in EEG low-alpha power while walking, nor EEG high-alpha desynchrony as a function of cognitive task difficulty while walking. This lack of alpha modulation coincided with no elevation of theta/alpha ratio power as a function of cognitive task difficulty in the TF LL group. Conclusions: This work suggests that both groups share some common but also different neurocognitive features during dual-task walking. Although all participants were able to recruit neural mechanisms critical for the maintenance of cognitive-motor performance under elevated cognitive or physical demands, the observed differences indicate that walking with a prosthesis, while concurrently performing a cognitive task, imposes additional cognitive demand in individuals with more proximal levels of amputation.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
Cover crops have increased in popularity in midwestern U.S. corn and soybean systems in recent years. However, little research has been conducted to evaluate how cover crops and residual herbicides are effectively integrated together for weed control in a soybean production system. Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate summer annual weed control and to determine the effect of cover crop biomass on residual herbicide reaching the soil. The herbicide treatments consisted of preplant (PP) applications of glyphosate plus 2,4-D with or without sulfentrazone plus chlorimuron at two different timings, 21 and 7 d prior to soybean planting (DPP). Cover crops evaluated included winter vetch, cereal rye, Italian ryegrass, oat, Austrian winter pea, winter wheat, and a winter vetch plus cereal rye mixture. Herbicide treatments were applied to tilled and nontilled soil without cover crop for comparison. The tillage treatment resulted in low weed biomass at all collection intervals after both application timings, which corresponded to tilled soil having the highest sulfentrazone concentration (171 ng g−1) compared with all cover crop treatments. When applied PP, herbicide treatments applied 21 DPP with sulfentrazone had greater weed (93%) and waterhemp (89%) control than when applied 7 DPP (60% and 69%, respectively). When applied POST, herbicide treatments with a residual herbicide resulted in greater weed and waterhemp control at 7 DPP (83% and 77%, respectively) than at 21 DPP (74% and 61%, respectively). Herbicide programs that included a residual herbicide had the highest soybean yields (≥3,403 kg ha−1). Results from this study indicate that residual herbicides can be effectively integrated either PP or POST in conjunction with cover crop termination applications, but termination timing and biomass accumulation will affect the amount of sulfentrazone reaching the soil.
Hydraulic processes within and beneath glacial bodies exert a far-reaching control on ice flow through their influence on basal sliding. Within the subglacial system, rapid changes in these processes may excite resonances whose interpretation requires an understanding of the underlying wave mechanics. Here, we explore these mechanics using observations from a kHz-sampled pressure sensor installed in a borehole directly above the hard granite bedrock of a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. We apply a previously established theory of wave propagation along thin, water-filled structures such as water-filled voids, basal water layers, or hydraulic fractures. Within such structures, short-wavelength waves experience restoring forces due to compressibility and are composed of sound waves. Long-wavelength resonances, in contrast, experience restoring forces due to elasticity and are composed of anomalously dispersed crack waves or Krauklis waves. Our borehole observations confirm the occurrence of both sound and crack waves within the basal water layer. Using both the resonance frequencies and attenuation of recorded crack waves we estimate thickness, aperture and length of the resonating basal water layer patch into which we drilled. We demonstrate that high-frequency observations of subglacial hydraulic processes provide new insights into this evolving dynamic system.
In recent years, the use of cover crops has increased in U.S. crop production systems. An important aspect of successful cover crop establishment is the preceding crop and herbicide program, because some herbicides have the potential to persist in the soil for several months. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of cover crops to common residual herbicides used in soybean production. The same field experiment was conducted in 2016 in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, and repeated in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri in 2017 to evaluate the potential of residual soybean herbicides to carryover and reduce cover crop establishment. Herbicides applied during the soybean growing season included acetochlor; acetochlor plus fomesafen; chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron; fomesafen; fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor; imazethapyr; pyroxasulfone; S-metolachlor; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor. Across all herbicide treatments, the sensitivity of cover crops to herbicide residues in the fall, from greatest to least, was forage radish = turnip > annual ryegrass = winter oat = triticale > cereal rye = Austrian winter pea = hairy vetch = wheat > crimson clover. Fomesafen (applied 21 and 42 days after planting [(DAP]); chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron and pyroxasulfone applied 42 DAP; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor caused the highest visual ground cover reduction to cover crop species at the fall rating. Study results indicate cover crops are most at risk when following herbicide applications in soybean containing certain active ingredients such as fomesafen, but overall there is a fairly low risk of cover crop injury from residual soybean herbicides applied in the previous soybean crop.