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Pulsed coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is a potential alternative to pulsed near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths for atom probe tomography. EUV radiation has the benefit of high absorption within the first few nm of the sample surface for elements across the entire periodic table. In addition, EUV radiation may also offer athermal field ion emission pathways through direct photoionization or core-hole Auger decay processes, which are not possible with the (much lower) photon energies used in conventional NUV laser-pulsed atom probe. We report preliminary results from what we believe to be the world’s first EUV radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. The instrument consists of a femtosecond-pulsed, coherent EUV radiation source interfaced to a local electrode atom probe tomograph by means of a vacuum manifold beamline. EUV photon-assisted field ion emission (of substrate atoms) has been demonstrated on various insulating, semiconducting, and metallic specimens. Select examples are shown.
Article 6 of the SPS Agreement presents a series of interlinked obligations for importing and exporting countries of diseased agricultural products. The Russia–Pigs dispute raises the question of when an importing country is justified in imposing a ban on products from exporting countries unaffected by the disease, on the basis of the fact that the country is part of the same customs union as another country inflicted with the disease. This Article contends that four distinct classes of cross-border and cross-product externalities ought to play an important role when assessing this question in the future. It discusses the possible roles to be played by bilateral, sequential, pass-through, and supply chain externalities in propagating the transmission of agricultural disease across borders through trade.
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally tailored lifestyle intervention, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! (Live My Life!). This intervention was designed to improve the health and well-being of high risk late middle-aged Latino adults and to be implemented in a rural primary care system.
Rural-dwelling Latino adults experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with their urban counterparts, a disparity exacerbated by limited access to healthcare services. Very few lifestyle interventions exist that are both culturally sensitive and compatible for delivery within a non-metropolitan primary care context.
Participants were 37 Latino, Spanish-speaking adults aged 50–64-years-old, recruited from a rural health clinic in the Antelope Valley of California. ¡Vivir Mi Vida! was delivered by a community health worker-occupational therapy team over a 16-week period. Subjective health, lifestyle factors, and cardiometabolic measures were collected pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews and focus groups were held to collect information related to the subjective experiences of key stakeholders and participants.
Participants demonstrated improvements in systolic blood pressure, sodium and saturated fat intake, and numerous patient-centered outcomes ranging from increased well-being to reduced stress. Although participants were extremely satisfied with the program, stakeholders identified a number of implementation challenges. The findings suggest that a tailored lifestyle intervention led by community health workers and occupational therapists is feasible to implement in a primary care setting and can improve health outcomes in rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latinos.
Attention on food safety issues in the European Union has increased the focus on Salmonella control in the pig industry. The UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and Germany are currently introducing Salmonella monitoring programmes, whereas Sweden and Denmark already have extensive Salmonella control programmes in place. Feed manufacturers and farmers have been faced with a dilemma. While pelleted feeds give superior growth rates and feed conversion over meals, ground feeds are known to promote a better gut environment, especially when it comes to reducing the levels of Salmonella in the gut. New Danish research points to a solution. By incorporating a proportion of coarsely ground material in a pellet along with Formi®, it is possible to both reduce Salmonella and optimise gut health and performance.
Post–Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) can result in mortality levels of up to 80% in weaned piglets, and Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as one of the primary causative agents. Neutraceutical products, based on plant and herbal extracts and containing high levels of natural antioxidants may be beneficial in reducing stress on the piglets’ immune system by elevating blood antioxidant levels, and assisting with the piglets defence against PMWS. The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of supplementation with neutraceutical products on the growth performance and antioxidant activity in liver and plasma of piglets. It was undertaken on a farm positive for PCV2, but where pigs were not showing clinical signs of PMWS. Groups of newly weaned pigs were offered one of three diets ad libitum for a period of 26 days, standard creep and starter/link control rations, or one of two experimental rations (including Neutraceutical–mix, N, or Lycopene, L), chosen for their potential to boost antioxidant activity. Growth performance and feed intake were monitored, and samples of blood and liver collected at slaughter (54 days of age) and analysed for antioxidant activity. Although L pigs ate significantly less feed during the creep period (P<0.05), there were relatively few performance differences between treatments. However total antioxidant activity in liver samples was significantly higher for the N treatment (P<0.001) and activity of plasma superoxide dismutase was significantly higher in the L group. In conclusion, growth performance of weaned piglets following the addition of Neutraceutical supplements was similar to control groups, and there were significant increases in antioxidant activity of these animals. On the basis that increased levels of circulating blood antioxidants reduce stress on the piglets’ immune system, the results of the current study suggest that these supplements may be of benefit to piglets under immune stress, such as in clinical cases of PMWS.
With the proposed ban on antibiotic growth promoters it is becoming increasingly important to provide diets to young pigs which enhance the long term health. Alternative strategies to promote health include organic acids, herbal products and natural antioxidants. These products have various proposed modes of action including improved liver function, removal of reactive oxygen species and the enhancement of the immune function. The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of a commercial herbal mixture and Lycopene on the performance and immune function of weaned pigs.
Selection for efficiency of lean growth has lead to a marked reduction in fat gain and voluntary food intake (VFI) of modern genotypes. There is concern that future improvements in lean growth rate may be limited by appetite. Moreover, the ability of lean genotypes to adjust their VFI in response to variations in nutrient density is not well known. Such genotypes may fail to compensate their intake in response to marginal reductions in nutrient density, which could affect growth performance. The aim was to evaluate the VFI and growth performance of ‘White’ and Meishan cross growing pigs in response to incremental reductions in dietary energy content.
Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content of barley is predominately in the form of β-glucan, whereas in wheat it is predominately pentosans (containing the sugars arabinose and xylose). It has generally been accepted therefore that a high level of β-glucanase is needed in broiler diets containing barley, whereas wheat based diets require a high level of endoxylanase. Trials have however previously suggested that including an endoxylanase based enzyme in broiler diets will perform at least as well as enzyme containing highlevels of β-glucanase in diets containing up to 30% barley. To confirm this finding, a trial was initiated at Roslin Institute, Edinburgh to compare the effectiveness of Natugrain Blend 66% (an endoxylanase based product) against Natugrain 33% (endoxylanase/β-glucanase product) in diets containing up to 30% barley.
Creep feeding enhances weaning weight (King et al., 1998) and may also enhance early post-weaning growth rate, both of which are positively correlated to subsequent performance (Miller et al., 1999). When preweaning feeds are offered, current practice in the UK is to feed either dry feed from day 14 to weaning or acidified milk replacer from days 3 to 18. Intakes of dry feed pre-weaning are generally low whereas liquid feeds are consumed more readily. Our objectives were 1) to offer creep feed as a gruel to test whether this would enhance intake of creep and provide an alternative to milk replacer, and 2) to provide all three forms of supplementary feeding together to determine whether this further increased performance. Piglets receiving no supplementary pre-weaning feed were the negative control.
Concerns over pollution from intensive animal production has lead to developments in enzyme technology to improve the utilisation of minerals such as phosphorous (P) from the diet, and to reduce levels of added inorganic minerals. BASF Natuphos® (registered trademark of Gist-brocades) is a formulation of microbial phytase which improves digestibility of P from plant origin. The aim of this study was to determine whether reducing levels of inorganic P (Dicalcium Phosphate-18%P) and including quantities of Natuphos® would effect have any effect on growth performance and bone strength.
Wheat is often the largest single ingredient in piglet diets and therefore variation in quality may have a large effect on piglet performance. Currently there is no rapid method for the nutritive assessment of wheat. The livestock feed industry traditionally uses bushel weight as a predictor of nutritive value; however this assumption has recently been challenged by a literature review (Miller and Wilkinson, 1998) and by a weaner trial (Miller, Toplis, Arnold, Cook and Marshall, 2000). The aim of this experiment was to compare two more extreme bushel weights of Riband (64 v 78 kg/hl) than used in the previous experiment (Miller et al., 2000) when fed to weaned piglets with and without a xylanase enzyme. In order to amplify possible differences wheats were uncooked and included in the test diets at an atypically high level. We hypothesised that 78 kg/hl bushel weight would outperform 64kg/hl bushel weight (which is below the standard accepted by feed mills for feed wheat) and that enzyme supplementation would improve the performance of both wheats.
The natural ventilation flow driven by an internal buoyant plume in a box involving an upper opening (vent) located at the ceiling (for the outflow) and a large lower opening at the floor (for the inflow) is examined theoretically in a general non-Boussinesq case. Analytical solutions of this emptying–filling box problem allow the characteristics of the flow at the vent to be determined. From these characteristics, a non-dimensional parameter
(called the discharge plume parameter) is expressed. This parameter characterizes the initial balance of volume, buoyancy and momentum fluxes in the plume-like flow that forms above the vent. We then note that the value of
allows the buoyant fluid layer depth in the box to be estimated, which is a new and interesting result for natural ventilation problems. Following previous experimental results, the decrease of the vent discharge coefficient
increases is discussed and a theoretical model based on plume necking is proposed. The emptying–filling box model is then extended for a variable
). Even though the discharge coefficient may be markedly reduced at high values of
, our results show that this only affects transients and the steady state of an emptying–filling box for relatively thin buoyant fluid layers.
Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.
We present preliminary results of a galaxy redshift survey we are accomplishing as an ESO Key Project over about 40 square degrees in a region near the South Galactic Pole, to a limiting magnitude bJ = 19.4. Up to now ∼ 50% of the survey has been completed, providing about 2000 galaxy redshifts.
Eco-efficiency is a useful guide to dairy farm sustainability analysis aimed at increasing output (physical or value added) and minimizing environmental impacts (EIs). Widely used partial eco-efficiency ratios (EIs per some functional unit, e.g. kg milk) can be problematic because (i) substitution possibilities between EIs are ignored, (ii) multiple ratios can complicate decision making and (iii) EIs are not usually associated with just the functional unit in the ratio’s denominator. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a ‘global’ eco-efficiency modelling framework dealing with issues (i) to (iii) by combining Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data and the multiple-input, multiple-output production efficiency method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). With DEA each dairy farm’s outputs and LCA-derived EIs are aggregated into a single, relative, bounded, dimensionless eco-efficiency score, thus overcoming issues (i) to (iii). A novelty of this study is that a model providing a number of additional desirable properties was employed, known as the Range Adjusted Measure (RAM) of inefficiency. These properties altogether make RAM advantageous over other DEA models and are as follows. First, RAM is able to simultaneously minimize EIs and maximize outputs. Second, it indicates which EIs and/or outputs contribute the most to a farm’s eco-inefficiency. Third it can be used to rank farms in terms of eco-efficiency scores. Thus, non-parametric rank tests can be employed to test for significant differences in terms of eco-efficiency score ranks between different farm groups. An additional DEA methodology was employed to ‘correct’ the farms’ eco-efficiency scores for inefficiencies attributed to managerial factors. By removing managerial inefficiencies it was possible to detect differences in eco-efficiency between farms solely attributed to uncontrollable factors such as region. Such analysis is lacking in previous dairy studies combining LCA with DEA. RAM and the ‘corrective’ methodology were demonstrated with LCA data from French specialized dairy farms grouped by region (West France, Continental France) and feeding strategy (regardless of region). Mean eco-efficiency score ranks were significantly higher for farms with <10% and 10% to 30% maize than farms with >30% maize in the total forage area before correcting for managerial inefficiencies. Mean eco-efficiency score ranks were higher for West than Continental farms, but significantly higher only after correcting for managerial inefficiencies. These results helped identify the eco-efficiency potential of each region and feeding strategy and could therefore aid advisors and policy makers at farm or region/sector level. The proposed framework helped better measure and understand (dairy) farm eco-efficiency, both within and between different farm groups.
This study aimed to assess the influence of supra- and subglottic extensions and vocal fold mobility on outcome in a large monocentric cohort of 148 patients treated for tumour–node–metastasis stage T2N0 glottic carcinomas.
In all, 107 glottic carcinoma patients had normal vocal fold mobility (T2aN0), and 41 had impaired vocal fold mobility (T2bN0). Treatment decisions were made by a multidisciplinary team.
Vocal fold mobility was associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, local control, larynx preservation and laryngectomy-free survival. For patients with T2a lesions, local control, laryngectomy-free survival and disease-free survival improved after surgery but overall survival did not. For patients with T2b lesions, local control, laryngectomy-free survival, disease-free survival and overall survival were all higher after surgery than after radiotherapy.
This study highlights for the first time the importance of vocal fold mobility in treatment outcomes and is the first to assess its influence on survival. Updated tumour–node–metastasis classifications should consider the distinction between T2a and T2b lesions.
The Florida Children’s Medical Services (CMS) has a long-standing history of ensuring that providers of multiple paediatric subspecialties abide by the highest standards. The cardiac sub-committee has written quality standard documents that participating programmes must meet or exceed. These standards oversee paediatric cardiology services including surgery, catheterisations, and outpatient services. On April, 2012, the cardiac sub-committee decided to develop similar standards in paediatric electrophysiology. A task force was created and began this process. These standards include a catalogue of required and optional equipment, as well as staff and physician credentials. We sought to establish expectations of procedural numbers by practitioner and facility. The task force surveyed the members of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society. Finding no consensus, the task force is committed to generate the data by requiring that the CMS participating programmes enrol and submit data to the Multicenter Pediatric and Adult Congenital EP Quality (MAP-IT™) Initiative. This manuscript details the work of the Florida CMS Paediatric Electrophysiology Task Force.