To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To (i) validate a recently proposed questionnaire tool for the simple assessment of physical activity (PA) in pre-school children by comparison with accelerometry and heart-rate recordings; and (ii) extend the tool by adding more questions to improve validity and to refine the classification from two to three categories (PA low, medium, high).
Baseline data of an intervention evaluation study.
Children were categorized as either physically active or non-active, based on their parents’ answers to the five-item questionnaire. Activity and heart rate were recorded for 6 d (Actiheart device; CamNtech, Cambridge, UK). Nightly sleeping periods were removed and mean accelerometry counts (MACT), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) were computed. In a second step, additional questions that improved validity were added, resulting in an extended seven-item questionnaire.
For 748 (90·4 %) of the participating children aged 2·3–6·7 years, the questionnaires were filled out sufficiently for classification. Children classified as physically active showed 9·6 % higher MACT (P < 0·0003), spent more time in MVPA and insignificantly less time in SB. Using the extended questionnaire, children with PA classified as medium (reference: low) showed 11·0 % more MACT, spent 11·8 % more time in MVPA and 4·8 % less time in SB. Children with PA classified as high showed 16·9 % more MACT, spent 20·2 % more time in MVPA and 7·2 % less time in SB.
With validated PA questionnaires for pre-school children lacking, the proposed questionnaire might be a reasonable option to include for PA assessment in epidemiological studies where more elaborate measurements are unavailable.
Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated.
Setting and subjects
Weight and height were measured in 12 556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004–5 and 2005–6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity.
The mean age of the children evaluated was 5·78 (sd 0·43) years, 6535 (52·1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0·786, 95 % CI 0·687, 0·898) or obese (OR = 0·655, 95 % CI 0·506, 0·849) and achieved 6·7 (95 % CI 5·8, 7·7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables.
Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.