Geographically and historically Malaysia and Singapore are a single entity. However, political interests and priorities cast them asunder into two separate, and even antagonizing, entities. Political agendas and considerations severed the social, economic, cultural, and historical relations between these two nation states.
UNITY IN GEOGRAPHY
The Federation of Malaysia is a political entity of a nation-state created in 1963 that comprised West or Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. West Malaysia consists of the Malay Peninsula with nine Malay sultanates (Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor), Penang and Melaka, and the Federal Territory in which is located the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. (Putrajaya, situated some 40 kilometres from Kuala Lumpur is the newly established administrative centre of the country). East Malaysia comprised the Bornean states of Sabah (North Borneo before 1963) and Sarawak and the Federal Territory of Labuan, an island off the southwest coast of Sabah. The Republic of Singapore that came into being in 1965 is located off the southern tip of Peninsular Malaysia. The narrow Tebrau Strait or Straits of Johor separates the island republic from the peninsula mainland. A causeway and a bridge link Singapore to West Malaysia.
Geographically, it is visibly apparent that Singapore is a natural appendage to Peninsular Malaysia in geological and physical terms. The island in past geological times was in all probability a part of the peninsula and represents a breakaway from its tip. In close proximity to the equator (between latitudes 2° and 6° North), Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia share an all-year-round hot, wet and humid equatorial climate, as well as similar flora and fauna. Average temperatures range from 25° to 35° C with highland areas enjoying cooler conditions. Annual precipitation is between 2000 and 4000 millimetres. Both Peninsular Malaysia and island Singapore are in the monsoon zone, with the northeast monsoon blowing from the South China Sea and bringing higher rainfall from November to January to the eastern shores. From June to October the southwest monsoon is dominant, but it is not as wet hence there is lesser precipitation during this period.