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We provide an updated survey for Sri Lanka of species of Graphis sensu Staiger, recently divided into Graphis s. str. and Allographa, including brief descriptions and a key to all 124 species currently known. Six new species are described: Allographa bambusicola Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a bambusicolous Allographa with entire labia, a laterally carbonized excipulum, 80–100 × 15–17 µm large, muriform ascospores and a rather thick, irregularly verrucose lateral thalline margin of the lirellae; A. weerasooriyana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Allographa resembling A. rustica Kremp. in overall anatomy and chemistry, but with a verrucose thalline margin of the lirellae and labia not distinctly raised above the thalline margin; Graphis flosculifera Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. insulana but differing in the unique disposition of the lirellae and the slightly more elongate ascospores; G. rajapakshana Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. desquamescens, including in ascospore size, but with lirellae with a distinct lateral thalline margin; G. rimosothallina Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis with a thick, uneven, rimose thallus and Fissurina-like lirellae, a completely carbonized excipulum and transversely 7-septate ascospores, 32–37 × 8–10 µm; and G. thunsinhalayensis Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. subalbostriata but with smaller ascospores and lacking white lines between the striae of the labia. We also validate the name G. verrucoserpens Lücking. A total of 106 species are reported here for the first time from Sri Lanka. A biogeographical comparison with two other well-sampled countries (Costa Rica and Thailand) revealed a significantly higher similarity in species composition with Costa Rica than between Thailand and Costa Rica, suggesting a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ hypothesis, that is the migration of lineages from Gondwana (partly corresponding to the modern Neotropics) via the north-eastwards drifting Indian subcontinent and subsequent interchange with Laurasia (partly corresponding to the modern eastern Paleotropics). However, the evolutionary timeline of the clades involved does not support this hypothesis and suggests an alternative explanation of geologically more recent mid- to long-distance dispersal.
The genus Graphis sensu Staiger was recently divided into two genera, Graphis s. str. and Allographa. The latter contains mostly species with robust lirellae with a well-developed, often massively carbonized excipulum. With one exception, it also contains all species with a pigmented, yellow to orange pruina on the lirellae. Until now, seven species of Allographa were known with this character, all present in the Neotropics and one also in Africa. Here we describe two further species, both from tropical Asia, thus extending the known distribution of Allographa species with pigmented lirellae to the entire tropics. Allographa kamojangensis Jatnika, Noer & Lücking sp. nov. from Indonesia (Java) was recognized as a new taxon on the social media Facebook site Lichens Connecting People. Detailed studies showed that it deviates from the neotropical A. firferi in the much larger ascospores and the orange, K+ immediately purple-violet pigment, and from A. lutea in the completely carbonized excipulum and the larger ascospores. Allographa jayatilakana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking sp. nov. was discovered in the second author's backyard during a recent inventory of Graphidaceae in Sri Lanka. It differs from A. flavominiata in the much shorter ascospores, from A. firferi in the terminally muriform ascospores, and from A. ochracea in the yellow-orange, K+ yellow then slowly purple-violet pruina. A key is presented to all nine species of Allographa with pigmented lirellae.
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