The memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been characterized as consisting of multiple components. The purpose of this study was to confirm the utility of a two-process model, and to examine changes in the nature and extent of the neuropsychological deficits after a one-year interval. The results replicate the initial observation that the memory loss in AD can be described as consisting of a focal amnesic syndrome and a dysexecutive syndrome characterized by failure of rapid information processing and search of both episodic and semantic memory. One year after the initial observation, all dysexecutive patients and the majority of the amnesic patients had become non-focal. No patient developed a dysexecutive syndrome, but 18 patients developed amnesic syndromes. These results suggest that, like other aspects of the cognitive deficits of AD, the memory loss is multifactorial. These results have implications for understanding the pathophysiology of AD, and for designing pharmacotherapeutic intervention.