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To examine the association of all forms of malnutrition and socioeconomic status (SES), educational level and ethnicity in children <5 years, non-pregnant adolescent women (11–19 years) and non-pregnant adult women (20–49 years) in Colombia.
Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2010 Colombian National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of malnutrition was compared across categories of SES, educational level and ethnicity.
The sample for the current analysis comprised children <5 years, non-pregnant adolescent women (11–19 years) and non-pregnant adult women (20–49 years).
In children <5 years, a low SES and maternal educational level were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with high levels of SES and maternal education, that is, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 1·4 and 1·6 times lower in categories of low SES and educational levels, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of wasting, stunting and anaemia was higher in the lowest SES and maternal educational categories (the prevalence was between 1·1 and 1·8 times higher for these indicators). In women, the lowest SES (11 and 19 years) and educational levels (20 and 49 years) exhibited a higher prevalence in all forms of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the highest categories (i.e. overweight/obesity, stunting and anaemia). Additionally, indigenous or Afro-Colombian children and women had the highest prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other ethnicities.
These results suggest that public policies should address all forms of malnutrition that occur in the most vulnerable populations in Colombia using multiple strategies.
To examine the relationships between objectively measured sleep patterns
(sleep duration, sleep efficiency and bedtime) and sugar-sweetened beverage
(SSB) consumption (regular soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and
fruit juice) among children from all inhabited continents of the world.
Multinational, cross-sectional study.
The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment
Children (n 5873) 9–11 years of age.
Sleep duration was 12 min per night shorter in children who reported
consuming regular soft drinks ‘at least once a day’
compared with those who reported consuming ‘never’ or
‘less than once a week’. Children were more likely to
sleep the recommended 9–11 h/night if they reported
lower regular soft drink consumption or higher sports drinks consumption.
Children who reported consuming energy drinks ‘once a week or
more’ reported a 25-min earlier bedtime than those who reported
never consuming energy drinks. Children who reported consuming sports drinks
‘2–4 d a week or more’ also reported a
25-min earlier bedtime compared with those who reported never consuming
sports drinks. The associations between sleep efficiency and SSB consumption
were not significant. Similar associations between sleep patterns and SSB
consumption were observed across all twelve study sites.
Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher intake of regular soft
drinks, while earlier bedtimes were associated with lower intake of regular
soft drinks and higher intake of energy drinks and sports drinks in this
international study of children. Future work is needed to establish
causality and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
To examine socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among Colombian children and adolescents, and to assess the contribution of individual-, household- and community-level factors to those inequalities.
Cross-sectional data were used from two sources: 2005 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and 2005 Colombian census. Malnutrition outcomes included stunting and overweight. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the association between individual, household and contextual characteristics and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence ratios of the poorest quintile (v. richest) were compared to assess the contribution of different characteristics to inequalities in malnutrition.
Population-based, representative of Colombia.
Children and adolescents <18 years of age (n 30 779) from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey.
Children and adolescents living in the poorest households were close to five times more likely to be stunted, while those from the richest households were 1·3–2·8 times more likely than their poorest counterparts to be overweight. Care practices and household characteristics, particularly mother's education, explained over one-third of socio-economic inequalities in stunting. The proportion explained by access to services was not negligible (between 6 % and 14 %). Access to sanitation was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of stunting for all age groups. Between 14 % and 32 % of socio-economic disparities in overweight were explained by maternal and household characteristics. Mother's overweight was positively associated with overweight of the child.
Socio-economic inequalities in stunting and overweight coexist among children and adolescents in Colombia. Malnutrition inequalities are largely explained by household characteristics, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.
The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of pregnant women in Colombia and the associations between gestational BMI and sociodemographic and gestational characteristics.
Cross-sectional study. A secondary analysis was made of data from the 2005 Demographic and Health Survey of Colombia.
Pregnant adolescents aged 13–19 years (n 430) and pregnant women aged 20–49 years (n 1272).
The gestational BMI and sociodemographic characteristics of the adolescents differed from those of the pregnant adult women. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents were underweight for gestational age, compared with 14·5 % of the adult women. Eighteen per cent of adolescents were overweight for gestational age, in contrast to 37·3 % of adult women. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 44·7 % and the prevalence of low serum ferritin was 38·8 %. Women within the high quintiles of the wealth index (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·91, P < 0·02) had lower odds of being underweight. Women who received prenatal care (POR = 2·17; 95 % CI 1·48, 3·09, P < 0·001) and were multiparous (POR = 2·10; 95 % CI 1·43, 3·15, P < 0·0 0 1) had higher odds of being overweight. Women in extended families (POR = 0·63; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·95, P < 0·025) had lower odds of being overweight.
Underweight in pregnant adolescents and overweight in adult women coexist as a double burden in Colombia. Factors associated with malnutrition among pregnant women and adolescents should be considered for future interventions in countries experiencing nutritional transition.
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