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The corpus callosum (CC) is a brain structure with a high heritability and potential role in psychiatric disorders. However, the genetic architecture of the CC and the genetic link with psychiatric disorders remain largely unclear. We investigated the genetic architectures of the volume of the CC and its subregions and the genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.
We applied multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) to genetic and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 40,894 individuals from the UK Biobank, aiming to boost genetic discovery and to assess the pleiotropic effects across volumes of the five subregions of the CC (posterior, mid-posterior, central, mid-anterior and anterior) obtained by FreeSurfer 7.1. Multivariate GWAS was run combining all subregions, co-varying for relevant variables. Gene-set enrichment analyses were performed using MAGMA. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) was used to determine Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of total CC volume and volumes of its subregions as well as their genetic correlations with relevant psychiatric traits.
We identified 70 independent loci with distributed effects across the five subregions of the CC (p < 5 × 10−8). Additionally, we identified 33 significant loci in the anterior subregion, 23 in the mid-anterior, 29 in the central, 7 in the mid-posterior and 56 in the posterior subregion. Gene-set analysis revealed 156 significant genes contributing to volume of the CC subregions (p < 2.6 × 10−6). LDSC estimated the heritability of CC to (h2SNP = 0.38, SE = 0.03) and subregions ranging from 0.22 (SE = 0.02) to 0.37 (SE = 0.03). We found significant genetic correlations of total CC volume with bipolar disorder (BD, rg = −0.09, SE = 0.03; p = 5.9 × 10−3) and drinks consumed per week (rg = −0.09, SE = 0.02; p = 4.8 × 10−4), and volume of the mid-anterior subregion with BD (rg = −0.12, SE = 0.02; p = 2.5 × 10−4), major depressive disorder (MDD) (rg = −0.12, SE = 0.04; p = 3.6 × 10−3), drinks consumed per week (rg = −0.13, SE = 0.04; p = 1.8 × 10−3) and cannabis use (rg = −0.09, SE = 0.03; p = 8.4 × 10−3).
Our results demonstrate that the CC has a polygenic architecture implicating multiple genes and show that CC subregion volumes are heritable. We found that distinct genetic factors are involved in the development of anterior and posterior subregions, consistent with their divergent functional specialisation. Significant genetic correlation between volumes of the CC and BD, drinks per week, MDD and cannabis consumption subregion volumes with psychiatric traits is noteworthy and deserving of further investigation.
Obesity is highly prevalent and disabling, especially in individuals with severe mental illness including bipolar disorders (BD). The brain is a target organ for both obesity and BD. Yet, we do not understand how cortical brain alterations in BD and obesity interact.
We obtained body mass index (BMI) and MRI-derived regional cortical thickness, surface area from 1231 BD and 1601 control individuals from 13 countries within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the statistical effects of BD and BMI on brain structure using mixed effects and tested for interaction and mediation. We also investigated the impact of medications on the BMI-related associations.
BMI and BD additively impacted the structure of many of the same brain regions. Both BMI and BD were negatively associated with cortical thickness, but not surface area. In most regions the number of jointly used psychiatric medication classes remained associated with lower cortical thickness when controlling for BMI. In a single region, fusiform gyrus, about a third of the negative association between number of jointly used psychiatric medications and cortical thickness was mediated by association between the number of medications and higher BMI.
We confirmed consistent associations between higher BMI and lower cortical thickness, but not surface area, across the cerebral mantle, in regions which were also associated with BD. Higher BMI in people with BD indicated more pronounced brain alterations. BMI is important for understanding the neuroanatomical changes in BD and the effects of psychiatric medications on the brain.
Exposure to adversities in early childhood is associated with psychotic experiences and disorders in adulthood. We aimed to examine whether early childhood adversities are associated with middle childhood psychotic experiences in a cohort of children at familial high risk of schizophrenia (FHR-SZ), bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) and population-based controls (controls).
Four hundred and forty-six children from The Danish High Risk and Resilience Study – VIA7 and VIA11 participated in this study (FHR-SZ = 170; FHR-BP = 103; controls = 173). Exposure to early childhood adversities and psychotic experiences were assessed using face-to-face interviews. Having childhood adversities assessed at baseline (age 7) was used as predictor. Psychotic experiences assessed at follow-up (age 11) were used as outcome.
Across the sample, exposure to early childhood interpersonal adversities was associated with an increased risk for any middle childhood psychotic experiences and subclinical delusions when adjusting for relevant confounders (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.05; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6–5.6, p < 0.001). There was no significant dose–response effect of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversities on any psychotic experiences. There were no interaction effects between early childhood adversities and FHR on middle childhood psychotic experiences. Exploratory analyses revealed that experiencing domestic violence in early childhood was associated with any middle childhood psychotic experiences (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5–5.1, p = 0.001).
Exposure to interpersonal adversities during early childhood is associated with an increased risk for middle childhood psychotic experiences including specifically subclinical delusions. Future studies should examine associations between exposure to childhood adversities and conversion to psychosis within this cohort.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, with its impact on our way of life, is affecting our experiences and mental health. Notably, individuals with mental disorders have been reported to have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Personality traits could represent an important determinant of preventative health behaviour and, therefore, the risk of contracting the virus.
We examined overlapping genetic underpinnings between major psychiatric disorders, personality traits and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to explore the genetic correlations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility with psychiatric disorders and personality traits based on data from the largest available respective genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In two cohorts (the PsyCourse (n = 1346) and the HeiDE (n = 3266) study), polygenic risk scores were used to analyse if a genetic association between, psychiatric disorders, personality traits and COVID-19 susceptibility exists in individual-level data.
We observed no significant genetic correlations of COVID-19 susceptibility with psychiatric disorders. For personality traits, there was a significant genetic correlation for COVID-19 susceptibility with extraversion (P = 1.47 × 10−5; genetic correlation 0.284). Yet, this was not reflected in individual-level data from the PsyCourse and HeiDE studies.
We identified no significant correlation between genetic risk factors for severe psychiatric disorders and genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility. Among the personality traits, extraversion showed evidence for a positive genetic association with COVID-19 susceptibility, in one but not in another setting. Overall, these findings highlight a complex contribution of genetic and non-genetic components in the interaction between COVID-19 susceptibility and personality traits or mental disorders.
Timing of developmental milestones, such as age at first walking, is associated with later diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, its relationship to genetic risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the general population is unknown. Here, we investigate associations between attainment of early-life language and motor development milestones and genetic liability to autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia.
We use data from a genotyped sub-set (N = 25699) of children in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We calculate polygenic scores (PGS) for autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia and predict maternal reports of children's age at first walking, first words, and first sentences, motor delays (18 months), and language delays and a generalised measure of concerns about development (3 years). We use linear and probit regression models in a multi-group framework to test for sex differences.
We found that ADHD PGS were associated with earlier walking age (β = −0.033, padj < 0.001) in both males and females. Additionally, autism PGS were associated with later walking (β = 0.039, padj = 0.006) in females only. No robust associations were observed for schizophrenia PGS or between any neurodevelopmental PGS and measures of language developmental milestone attainment.
Genetic liabilities for neurodevelopmental disorders show some specific associations with the age at which children first walk unsupported. Associations are small but robust and, in the case of autism PGS, differentiated by sex. These findings suggest that early-life motor developmental milestone attainment is associated with genetic liability to ADHD and autism in the general population.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
We present associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and brain morphology in a large sample of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease with dementia (AD dementia).
Several studies assessed NPS factor structure in MCI and AD dementia, but we know of no study that tested for associations between NPS factors and brain morphology. The use of factor scores increases parsimony and power. For transparency, we performed an additional analysis with selected Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Questionnaire (NPI-Q) items. Including regional cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volumes, we examined associations between NPS and brain morphology across the whole brain in an unbiased fashion. We reported both statistical significance and effect sizes, using linear models adjusted for multiple comparisons by false discovery rate (FDR). Moreover, we included an interaction term for diagnosis and could thereby compare associations of NPS and brain morphology between MCI and AD dementia.
We found an association between the factor elation and thicker right anterior cingulate cortex across MCI and AD dementia. Associations between the factors depression to thickness of the banks of the left superior temporal sulcus and psychosis to the left post-central volume depended on diagnosis: in MCI these associations were positive, in AD dementia negative.
Our findings indicate that NPS in MCI and AD dementia are not exclusively associated with atrophy and support previous findings of associations between NPS and mainly frontotemporal brain structures.
Both neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental abnormalities have been suggested to be part of the etiopathology of severe mental illness (SMI). Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), mainly located in the neuronal cytoplasm, may indicate the process as it is upregulated after neuronal injury while a switch from non-neuronal enolase to NSE occurs during neuronal maturation.
We included 1132 adult patients with SMI [schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar spectrum disorders], 903 adult healthy controls (HC), 32 adolescent patients with SMI and 67 adolescent HC. Plasma NSE concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay. For 842 adults and 85 adolescents, we used total grey matter volume (TGMV) based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images processed in FreeSurfer v6.0. We explored NSE case-control differences in adults and adolescents separately. To investigate whether putative case-control differences in NSE were TGMV-dependent we controlled for TGMV.
We found significantly lower NSE concentrations in both adult (p < 0.001) and adolescent patients with SMI (p = 0.007) compared to HC. The results remained significant after controlling for TGMV. Among adults, both patients with SZ spectrum (p < 0.001) and bipolar spectrum disorders (p = 0.005) had lower NSE than HC. In both patient subgroups, lower NSE levels were associated with increased symptom severity. Among adults (p < 0.001) and adolescents (p = 0.040), females had lower NSE concentrations than males.
We found lower NSE concentrations in adult and adolescent patients with SMI compared to HC. The results suggest the lack of progressive neuronal injury, and may reflect abnormal neuronal maturation. This provides further support of a neurodevelopmental rather than a neurodegenerative mechanism in SMI.
Cardiometabolic risk is increased in severe mental disorders (SMDs), and there appears to be a relationship between childhood trauma and cardiometabolic risk, possibly related to adverse health behavior. The current study examined the association between childhood trauma and serum lipids and adiposity in SMDs and the potential mediating role of cognitive and personality characteristics.
Participants with schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders (N = 819) were included, cardiometabolic risk factors (serum lipids, body mass index, and waist circumference) were measured, and history of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Cognitive and personality characteristics were available in subsamples, with assessments of cognitive control, impulsiveness, self-esteem, and affective lability. Linear regressions and mediation analyses with Hayes’ PROCESS were performed, adjusting for age, sex, antipsychotic agent propensity of metabolic side-effect, and diagnostic group.
Experience of three or more subtypes of childhood trauma was positively associated with waist circumference in patients with SMDs (p = 0.014). There were no other significant associations between trauma variables and lipid or adiposity measures in the total sample. Cognitive control was a significant mediator between experience of one or two subtypes of childhood trauma and waist circumference.
The results indicate childhood trauma as a predisposing factor for increased waist circumference in individuals with SMDs. Poorer cognitive control, suggestive of adverse health behavior, might be a mediating factor of the association, and the findings indicate the potential importance of increased focus on these factors in prevention and treatment regimens targeting cardiometabolic health.
The etiology of schizophrenia (SZ) is proposed to include an interplay between a genetic risk for disease development and the biological environment of pregnancy and birth, where early adversities may contribute to the poorer developmental outcome. We investigated whether a history of birth asphyxia (ASP) moderates the relationship between intracranial volume (ICV) and intelligence in SZ, bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC).
Two hundred seventy-nine adult patients (18–42 years) on the SZ and BD spectrums and 216 HC were evaluated for ASP based on information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate ICV and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Multiple linear regressions were used for analyses.
We found a significant three-way interaction (ICV × ASP × diagnosis) on the outcome variable, IQ, indicating that the correlation between ICV and IQ was stronger in patients with SZ who experienced ASP compared to SZ patients without ASP. This moderation by ASP was not found in BD or HC groups. In patients with SZ, the interaction between ICV and a history of the ASP was specifically related to the verbal subcomponent of IQ as measured by WASI.
The significant positive association between ICV and IQ in patients with SZ who had experienced ASP might indicate abnormal neurodevelopment. Our findings give support for ICV together with verbal intellectual abilities as clinically relevant markers that can be added to prediction tools to enhance evaluations of SZ risk.
Altered expression of the complement component C4A gene is a known risk factor for schizophrenia. Further, predicted brain C4A expression has also been associated with memory function highlighting that altered C4A expression in the brain may be relevant for cognitive and behavioral traits.
We obtained genetic information and performance measures on seven cognitive tasks for up to 329 773 individuals from the UK Biobank, as well as brain imaging data for a subset of 33 003 participants. Direct genotypes for variants (n = 3213) within the major histocompatibility complex region were used to impute C4 structural variation, from which predicted expression of the C4A and C4B genes in human brain tissue were predicted. We investigated if predicted brain C4A or C4B expression were associated with cognitive performance and brain imaging measures using linear regression analyses.
We identified significant negative associations between predicted C4A expression and performance on select cognitive tests, and significant associations with MRI-based cortical thickness and surface area in select regions. Finally, we observed significant inconsistent partial mediation of the effects of predicted C4A expression on cognitive performance, by specific brain structure measures.
These results demonstrate that the C4 risk locus is associated with the central endophenotypes of cognitive performance and brain morphology, even when considered independently of other genetic risk factors and in individuals without mental or neurological disorders.
Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems.
The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse (‘baseline’) and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (‘follow-up’). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)].
Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04–1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13–1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09–1.60).
A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.
Uncertainty exists about what causes brain structure alterations associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whether a history of asphyxia-related obstetric complication (ASP) – a common but harmful condition for neural tissue – contributes to variations in adult brain structure is unclear. We investigated ASP and its relationship to intracranial (ICV), global brain volumes and regional cortical and subcortical structures.
A total of 311 patients on the SZ – BD spectrum and 218 healthy control (HC) participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. They were evaluated for ASP using prospective information obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.
In all groups, ASP was related to smaller ICV, total brain, white and gray matter volumes and total surface area, but not to cortical thickness. Smaller cortical surface areas were found across frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and insular regions. Smaller hippocampal, amygdala, thalamus, caudate and putamen volumes were reported for all ASP subgroups. ASP effects did not survive ICV correction, except in the caudate, which remained significantly smaller in both patient ASP subgroups, but not in the HC.
Since ASP was associated with smaller brain volumes in all groups, the genetic risk of developing a severe mental illness, alone, cannot easily explain the smaller ICV. Only the smaller caudate volumes of ASP patients specifically suggest that injury from ASP can be related to disease development. Our findings give support for the ICV as a marker of aberrant neurodevelopment and ASP in the etiology of brain development in BD and SZ.
Cognitive dysfunction cut across diagnostic categories and is present in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although with considerable heterogeneity in both disorders. This study examined if distinct cognitive subgroups could be identified across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder based on the intellectual trajectory from the premorbid phase to after illness onset.
Three hundred and ninety-eight individuals with schizophrenia (n = 223) or bipolar I disorder (n = 175) underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment. Hierarchical and k-means cluster analyses using premorbid (National Adult Reading Test) and current IQ (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) estimates were performed for each diagnostic category, and the whole sample collapsed. Resulting clusters were compared on neuropsychological, functional, and clinical variables. Healthy controls (n = 476) were included for analyses of neuropsychological performance.
Cluster analyses consistently yielded three clusters: a relatively intact group (36% of whole sample), an intermediate group with mild cognitive impairment (44%), and an impaired group with global deficits (20%). The clusters were validated by multinomial logistic regression and differed significantly for neuropsychological, functional, and clinical measures. The relatively intact group (32% of the schizophrenia sample and 42% of the bipolar sample) performed below healthy controls for speeded neuropsychological tests.
Three cognitive clusters were identified across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using premorbid and current IQ estimates. Groups differed for clinical, functional, and neuropsychological variables, implying their meaningfulness. One-third of the schizophrenia sample belonged to the relatively intact group, highlighting that neuropsychological assessment is needed for the precise characterization of the individual.
Whether severe obstetric complications (OCs), which harm neural function in offspring, contribute to impaired cognition found in psychiatric disorders is currently unknown. Here, we sought to evaluate how a history of severe OCs is associated with cognitive functioning, indicated by Intelligence Quotient (IQ).
We evaluated the associations of a history of OCs and IQ in 622 healthy controls (HC) and 870 patients on the schizophrenia (SCZ) – bipolar disorder (BIP) spectrum from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis study cohort, Oslo, Norway. Participants underwent assessments using the NART (premorbid IQ) and the WASI (current IQ). Information about OCs was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multiple linear regression models were used for analysis.
Severe OCs were equally common across groups. SCZ patients with OCs had lower performances on both premorbid and current IQ measures, compared to those without OCs. However, having experienced more than one co-occurring severe OC was associated with lower current IQ in all groups.
Severe OCs were associated with lower IQ in the SCZ group and in the BIP and HC groups, but only if they had experienced more than one severe OC. Low IQ might be a neurodevelopmental marker for SCZ; wherein, severe OCs influence cognitive abilities and increase the risk of developing SCZ. Considering OCs as a variable of neurodevelopmental risk for severe mental illness may promote the development of neuroprotective interventions, improve outcome in vulnerable newborns and advance our ability to make clinical prognoses.
Oxidative stress and dysregulated antioxidant defence may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated changes in antioxidants and oxidative stress from an acute to a later stable phase. We hypothesised that the levels of oxidative markers are increased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls; change from the acute to the stable phase; and are associated with the levels of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and symptom severity.
Fifty-five patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, assessed during an acute phase and 5 years later during a stable phase, and 51 healthy controls were included. We measured antioxidants (α-tocopherol, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin), markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane and reactive oxygen metabolites) and membrane fatty acids. Antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were compared in schizophrenia versus healthy controls, adjusting for differences in sex, age and smoking, and changes over time. Associations between symptoms and PUFA were also investigated.
In the acute phase, α-tocopherol was significantly higher (p < 0.001), while albumin was lower (p < 0.001) compared with the stable phase. Changes in α-tocopherol were associated with PUFA levels in the acute phase. In the stable phase, schizophrenia patients had higher uric acid (p = 0.009) and lower bilirubin (p = 0.046) than healthy controls. CRP was higher in patients in the stable phase (p < 0.001), and there was no significant change from the acute phase.
The present findings of change in antioxidant levels in the acute versus stable phase of schizophrenia the present findings suggest that redox regulation is dynamic and changes during different phases of the disorder.
We aimed at exploring potential pathophysiological processes across psychotic disorders, applying metabolomics in a large and well-characterized sample of patients and healthy controls.
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (N = 212) and healthy controls (N = 68) had blood sampling with subsequent metabolomics analyses using electrochemical coulometric array detection. Concentrations of 52 metabolites including tyrosine, tryptophan and purine pathways were compared between patients and controls while controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Significant findings were further tested in medication-free subsamples.
Significantly decreased plasma concentrations in patients compared to healthy controls were found for 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKY, p = 0.0008), xanthurenic acid (XANU, p = 1.5×10−5), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA, p = 4.5×10−5) and metanephrine (MN, p = 0.0001). Plasma concentration of xanthine (XAN) was increased in the patient group (p = 3.5×10−5). Differences of 3OHKY, XANU, VMA and XAN were replicated across schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorders subsamples of medication-free individuals.
Although prone to residual confounding, the present results suggest the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, noradrenergic and purinergic system dysfunction as trait factors in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Of special interest is XANU, a metabolite previously not found to be associated with bipolar disorders.