The last decade has been marked by an increased interest in relating epigenetic mechanisms to complex human behaviors, although this interest has not been balanced, accentuating various types of affective and primarily ignoring cognitive functioning. Recent animal model data support the view that epigenetic processes play a role in learning and memory consolidation and help transmit acquired memories even across generations. In this review, we provide an overview of various types of epigenetic mechanisms in the brain (DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA action) and discuss their impact proximally on gene transcription, protein synthesis, and synaptic plasticity and distally on learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Of particular importance are observations that neuronal activation regulates the dynamics of the epigenome's functioning under precise timing, with subsequent alterations in the gene expression profile. In turn, epigenetic regulation impacts neuronal action, closing the circle and substantiating the signaling pathways that underlie, at least partially, learning, memory, and other cognitive processes.