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To review the epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Detroit, Michigan, to assess the risk factors for infection and the response to therapy.
Prospective clinical and laboratory study of 2003-2004 CA-MRSA isolates. Molecular features were compared with CA-MRSA isolates from 1980.
A 600-bed urban academic medical center.
Twenty-three patients with CA-MRSA infections from 2003-2004 were evaluated. In addition, laboratory analysis was performed on 13 CA-MRSA isolates from 1980.
Main Outcome Measures.
Laboratory analysis of isolates included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field genotyping, testing for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Patients were predominantly young African American males and presented with skin and soft-tissue infections. All isolates were resistant to erythromycin and highly susceptible to other agents. Patients were generally treated successfully with combination incision and drainage and systemic antibiotics. Among the 23 isolates, 20 (87%) were the same strain. This strain carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV and PVL genes and is genetically identical to USA 300. Thirteen isolates of patients from our community who presented with CA-MRSA infections in 1980 represented a single clone that is unique compared with the 2003-2004 isolates. This strain carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVA but did not carry the PVL genes.
In our community, CA-MRSA is largely due to a single clone with a type IV mec gene and PVL gene. The type IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type can be demonstrated in CA-MRSA isolates from a remote period, suggesting that earlier outbreaks were not related to healthcare exposure.
To review cases of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and to evaluate whether the risk factors and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia have changed from early reports.
Retrospective case-comparison study of community-onset MRSA (n - 26) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 26) bacteremias at our institution.
A 600-bed urban academic medical center.
Twenty-six patients with community-onset MRSA bacteremia were compared with 26 patients with community-onset MSSA bacteremia. Molecular analysis was performed on S. aureus isolates from the 26 MRSA cases as well as from 13 cases of community-onset S. aureus bacteremia from 1980 and 9 cases of nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia from 2001.
The two groups were similar except that patients with MRSA bacteremia were more likely to have presented from a long-term-care facility (26.9% vs 4%; P = .05) and to have had multiple admissions within the preceding year (46% vs 15%; P = .03). Clamped homogeneous electric fields analysis of MRSA isolates from 1982 revealed predominantly that one clone was the epidemic strain, whereas there were 14 unique strains among current community-onset isolates. Among current nosocomial isolates, 3 patterns were identified, all of which were present in the community-onset cases.
Previously described risk factors for MRSA acquisition may not be helpful in predicting disease due to the polyclonal spread of MRSA in the community. Unlike early outbreaks of MRSA in patients presenting from the community, current acquisition appears to be polyclonal and is usually related to contact with the healthcare system.
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