Here we wanted to assess whether sexual risk behaviour differs dependent by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status by following 100 HIV− and 137 HIV+ women recruited at two university teaching hospitals in Rwanda. Women were tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs; trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis B and C) and for reproductive tract infections (RTIs; candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis (BV)) and were interviewed at baseline and 9 months later. BV was the most prevalent infection, while syphilis was the most common STI with a 9-month incidence of 10.9% in HIV+ women. Only 24.5% of women positive for any RTI/STI contacted their health facility and got treatment. More HIV− women than HIV+ women had had more than one sexual partner and never used condoms during the follow-up period. The use of condoms was affected neither by marital status nor by concomitant STIs besides HIV. Our data highlight the importance of public education regarding condom use to protect against STIs in an era when HIV no longer is a death sentence.