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Sexuality and emotional life are rarely focus on attention in people suffering from severe long-term mental diseases like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
53 patients and 47 matched controls were studied using a new questionnaire (SEXSAM Scale) measuring relevance of sexual and emotional relationships in patients’ daily life. A specific Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ-SALSEX Montejo 2001-2008), Sexual Activity Assessment Scale modified from Kinsey (Montejo 2006) and the HONOS Scale measuring bio-psychosocial functioning were also applied.
Sexuality (physic and emotional) was scored as high valuable and the main motivation for sexual activity was looking for love and fondness in both groups. No differences were found in the value of more affective behaviours such as kissing, caressing, hugging or massaging. Global satisfaction in sexual and emotional life was significantly superior in control group and linked to the higher frequency of sexual relations. Many patients suffered for sexual dysfunction related to the treatment use and many of then were dissatisfied with their sexual life. Just a few numbers of patients had regular sexual intercourses. Patients describe an improvement in the self-perception of mood, appetite, sleep, anxiety level, humour sense and self-esteem when they have sexual relations. Predominant sexual activity for patients was masturbation. Prostitution use was higher in patient group. All these findings are negatively influencing personal satisfaction and quality of life.
Relevance of sexual and emotional life in patients is as high as in normal population. These patients are more concerned about affection and companionship than about physical pleasure.
In this paper, a robust geometric navigation algorithm, designed on the special Euclidean group SE(3), of a quadrotor is proposed. The equations of motion for the quadrotor are obtained using the Newton–Euler formulation. The geometric navigation considers a guidance frame which is designed to perform autonomous flights with a convergence to the contour of the task with small normal velocity. For this purpose, a super twisting algorithm controls the nonlinear rotational and translational dynamics as a cascade structure in order to establish the fast and yet smooth tracking with the typical robustness of sliding modes. In this sense, the controller provides robustness against parameter uncertainty, disturbances, convergence to the sliding manifold in finite time, and asymptotic convergence of the trajectory tracking. The algorithm validation is presented through experimental results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach and illustrating that the tracking errors converge asymptotically to the origin.
What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published mathematical models describing lactation in cattle, we show how structural identifiability analysis can contribute to advancing mathematical modelling in animal science towards the production of useful models and, moreover, highly informative experiments via optimal experiment design. Rather than attempting to impose a systematic identifiability analysis to the modelling community during model developments, we wish to open a window towards the discovery of a powerful tool for model construction and experiment design.
It is now well established that there is a diffuse ionised medium which extends far beyond the disks of spirals. The mechanism responsible for the ionisation is still an issue of debate, and the method of measuring the total luminosity, independently of the observational set-up, has to be defined. Here we analyse the case of the Magellanic irregular NGC 4449, using Fabry–Perot bidimensional mapping of the Hα emission line, at the 4·2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands. The total spatial coverage of 80×80 arcsec2 allows most of the star forming regions to be sampled at 0·26 arcsec/pixel spatial resolution. Using 3D spectroscopy, it is possible to define the individual star-forming regions and to produce a luminosity versus size diagram. This can be used to estimate directly the number of photons leaking out from those regions exceeding the thickness of the galactic disc. In the case of NGC 4449 it is shown that the large population of GEHRs can be the source of UV photons ionising the diffuse ionised gas (DIG) of the galaxy, and the logL–R diagram can be used to quantify the number of photons leaking out of the material surrounding the star forming regions. In the case of NGC 4449 it is found that 54% of the total luminosity of the giant star-forming regions is lost to the DIG. This implies a contribution of 3·12×1040 erg s−1 (1 erg s−1 = 10−7 J s−1) which amounts to 30% of the galaxy total Hα luminosity.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
The late Eocene – early Miocene Alpine–Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) lies in the transition between the Eastern Alps and the Western Carpathians, SE of the Bohemian crystalline massif. Our study shows the involvement of crystalline basement from the former European Jurassic continental margin in two distinct events. A first extensional event coeval with Eggerian–Karpatian (c. 28–16 Ma) thin-skinned thrusting reactivated the rift basement fault array and resulted from the large degree of lower plate bending promoted by high lateral gradients of lithospheric strength and slab pull forces. Slab break-off during the final stages of collision around Karpatian times (c. 17–16 Ma) promoted large-wavelength uplift and an excessive topographic load. This load was reduced by broadening the orogenic wedge through the reactivation of the lower-plate deep detachment beneath and ahead of the thin-skinned thrust front (with the accompanying positive inversion of the basement fault array) and ultimately, by the collapse of the hinterland summits, enhanced by transtensional faulting. Although this work specifically deals with the involvement of the basement in the Alpine–Carpathian Junction, the main conclusions are of general interest to the understanding of orogenic systems.
Gold nanoparticles can be used as ultimate electrical materials for storing electrons or controlling their flow for the next generation nano-electronic devices. These particles are the core element of assemblies where the electrical current is reduced to the smallest possible since electrons are controlled one by one by using the Coulomb blockade phenomenon. We prepared colloidal gold nanoparticles beteween 4 and 15 nm and grafted them on a grafted organic monolayer (GOM) on silicon. GOM are highly ordered monolayers prepared by hydrosilylation of alkene molecules and subsequently modified with an amine group so that gold nanoparticles can be firmly immobilized on top of the layer. We discuss several electrical properties at a single electron level. Using the conductive tip of KPFM, we were also able to reveal the spontaneous charging behavior of the gold nanoparticles so that the local work function of a 10 nm gold nanoparticle is only 3.7 eV. By placing an STM tip above a nanoparticle, Coulomb blockade allows controlling the number of electrons simultaneously injected in the nanoparticle. This opens the way for new kinds of single electron memories or single electron transistors.
The surface quality of a heat treatable Al-Si-Mg alloy by means compression tests at 450°C was evaluated. Samples were obtained from an ingot with unidirectional solidification in order to obtain a microstructural gradient influenced by the cooling and solidification rate. The samples were heat treated by homogenization at 520°C for 4 hours prior to deformation by compression. Inverted optical and scanning electron microscopes were used to assess the surface damage of deformed samples.
Analysis of deformed surface indicates a greater influence of microstructural refinement on hardening rate. It was found that the samples solidified at high cooling rates showed no defects, but at low cooling rates produced growth of grain size and intermetallic phases and thereby the high incidence of cracks in the surface.
A novel influenza virus emerged in the United States in spring 2009, rapidly becoming a global pandemic. Children were disproportionally affected by the novel influenza A(H1N1) pandemic virus [A(H1N1)pdm]. This retrospective electronic medical record review study aimed to identify clinical predictors of disease severity of influenza A(HIN1)pdm infection in paediatric patients. Disease severity was defined on an increasing three-level scale from non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). From April 2009 to June 2010, 696 children presented to Texas Children's Hospital's emergency department, 38% were hospitalized, and 17% were admitted to the ICU. Presenting symptoms associated with severe influenza were dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5·82], tachycardia (OR 2·61) and fatigue (OR 1·96). Pre-existing health conditions associated with disease severity included seizure disorder (OR 4·71), obesity (OR 3·28), lung disease (OR 2·84), premature birth (OR 2·53), haematological disease (OR 2·22), and developmental delay (OR 2·20). According to model fitness tests, presenting symptoms were more likely to predict severe influenza than underlying medical conditions. However, both are important risk factors. Recognition of clinical characteristics associated with severe disease can be used for triaging case management of children during future influenza outbreaks.
A survey of national animal influenza surveillance programmes was conducted to assess the current capacity to detect influenza viruses with zoonotic potential in animals (i.e. those influenza viruses that can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans) at regional and global levels. Information on 587 animal influenza surveillance system components was collected for 99 countries from Chief Veterinary Officers (CVOs) (n = 94) and published literature. Less than 1% (n = 4) of these components were specifically aimed at detecting influenza viruses with pandemic potential in animals (i.e. those influenza viruses that are capable of causing epidemic spread in human populations over large geographical regions or worldwide), which would have zoonotic potential as a prerequisite. Those countries that sought to detect influenza viruses with pandemic potential searched for such viruses exclusively in domestic pigs. This work shows the global need for increasing surveillance that targets potentially zoonotic influenza viruses in relevant animal species.
We designed and constructed a drop-on-demand (DOD) droplet dispenser using the piezo inkjet technique that is simple to construct and operate and makes use of readily available components. The droplet dispenser can be easily fitted with cost effective glass nozzles and can be readily tuned to produce consistent drop sizes. The dynamics of the droplet motion are obtained using a calibrated analog video imaging system. We observed very high accelerations for the ejected droplets that corroborate with the applied drive pulse amplitudes. The acceleration measured, near the ejection nozzle, was many times the acceleration of gravity with the largest value of 34g’s. We successfully dispensed glycol water solutions and aqueous suspensions of titanium oxide nanoparticles, with values greater than 10 in the measured pH. For the inkjet droplets deposited on smooth gold/chromium substrates (±3nm surface roughness variation), we observed the well-known coffee ring effect using optical microscopy and nanoparticle morphology using an atomic force microscope.
Effect of residual stresses of multiple welding repairs on API 5L X52 pipeline steel on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a simulated acidic soil solution was studied. Four conditions of repairs of the girth weld were evaluated. The residual stresses were measured through X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the internal side of the pipe in longitudinal and circumferential direction. The circumferential and longitudinal residual stresses values are compressive on the inner surface of the welding joints. The highest residual stresses were measured in the hoop direction reaching values of about 98% of the yielding strength (360 MPa). It was observed that its magnitude increases as move away from weld center line. The effect of residuals stresses in the SCC susceptibility of X52 pipeline steel was evaluated through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in a simulated acidic soil solution. Relation between mechanical properties obtained from SSRT and residual stresses on the SCC susceptibility was analyzed. Results of SCC index taking account the ratios obtained from the mechanical properties of the welding joints evaluate, showed good SCC resistance in acidic soil solution at low pH. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that the region with high residual stresses prior to generate cracks in the steel due to the combination of soil solution and the strain exerted, should favor pitting formation and not cracking.
Nowadays, the nature of the non radiative recombination centres in ZnO is a matter of controversy; they have been related to extended defects, zinc vacancy complexes, and surface defects, among other possible candidates. We present herein the optical characterization of catalyst free ZnO nanorods grown by atmospheric MOCVD by microRaman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies. The correlation between the defect related Raman modes and the cathodoluminescence emission along the nanorods permits to establish a relation between the non radiative recombination centers and the defects responsible for the local Raman modes, which have been related to Zn interstitial complexes.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
Objective: To estimate the heritability of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and beat-to-beat office BP and HR in an isolated, environmentally and genetically homogeneous Omani Arab population. Methods: Ambulatory BP measurements were recorded in 1,124 subjects with a mean age of 33.8 ± 16.2 years, using the auscultatory mode of the validated Schiller ambulatory BP Monitor. Beat-to-beat BP and HR were recorded by the Task Force Monitor. Heritability was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis. This was achieved by applying the maximum-likelihood-based variance decomposition method implemented in SOLAR software. Results: We detected statistically significant heritability estimates for office beat-to-beat, 24-hour, daytime, and sleep HR of 0.31, 0.21, 0.20, and 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates in the abovementioned conditions for systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP)/mean BP (MBP) were all significant and estimated at 0.19/0.19/0.19, 0.30/0.44/0.41, 0.28/0.38/0.39, and 0.21/0.18/0.20, respectively. Heritability estimates for 24-hour and daytime ambulatory SBP, DBP, and MBP ranged from 0.28 to 0.44, and were higher than the heritability estimates for beat-to-beat recordings and sleep periods, which were estimated within a narrow range of 0.18–0.21. Conclusion: In this cohort, because shared environments are common to all, the environmental influence that occurs is primarily due to the variation in non-shared environment that is unique to the individual. We demonstrated significant heritability estimates for both beat-to-beat office and ambulatory BP and HR recordings, but 24-hour and daytime ambulatory heritabilities are higher than those from beat-to-beat resting levels and ambulatory night-time recordings.
The synthesis of mullite from kaolin clay and two precursors of aluminum: α-Al2O3 and Al(NO3)3 was investigated. In order to study the temperature effect, the system kaolin-α-Al2O3 was calcined in air in a range of 1200 to 1500°C, for 2 h. For the system kaolin-Al(NO3)3, the combustion method was employed, using urea as fuel, and calcined in air at 1500°C for 2 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy and particle size analysis in order to analyze and compare their morphology and structure. The crystallographic study revealed an incomplete reaction between the kaolin and the α-Al2O3. Nevertheless, in the system kaolin-Al(NO3)3, it was obtained mullite with high purity and trace amounts of cristobalite.
In this work slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were used for the evaluation of API 5L X60 in contact with a simulated soil solution called NS4 in order to evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility. SSRT were carried out in NS4 solution at room temperature to simulate dilute ground water that has been found to be associated with SCC of low carbon steel pipelines. A strain rate of 1x10-6 sec-1 was used. According to the analysis of SSRT results, the X60 pipeline steel is highly resistant to SCC at the conditions studied. A combine fracture type it was observed: ductile and brittle with a transgranular appearance. Some pits close to the fracture zone were observed. The failure process and mechanism of X60 steel in NS4 solution are controlled by anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement which was revealed with the internal cracks observed in the surface fracture. There is a relation between the strength of the steel and the SCC susceptibility, thus, increasing strength in the steel, the SCC susceptibility increases as a function of the pH solution used.