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Diarrhoea remains a common cause of illness in Guatemala, with children suffering most frequently from the disease. This study directly compared the frequency, enterotoxin, and colonization factor (CF) profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains isolated from children living in a rural community in Guatemala and from Western visitors to the same location during the same seasons, using similar detection methodologies. We found that ETEC accounted for 26% of severe cases of diarrhoea in children requiring hospitalization, 15% of diarrhoea in the community, and 29% of travellers' diarrhoea in visitors staying ⩾2 weeks. The toxin and CF patterns of the ETEC strains isolated from both groups differed significantly (P < 0·0005) as determined by χ2 = 60·39 for CFs and χ2 = 35 for toxins, while ETEC phenotypes found in Guatemalan children were comparable to those found in children from other areas of the world.
The paper presents peculiarities of organization and performance of activities on disposition of the high level activity radwaste repository located at the radwaste disposal site of the Russian Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” in Moscow. The process of the radwaste extraction from the repository is described in comparison with similar activities in other old repositories. Tools and equipment used for the radwaste extraction from the repository are listed. Conventional construction machines equipped with a hydraulic hammer or a clamshell were used for destruction of the concrete-encased radwaste mass and extraction of low-level radwaste. Intermediate- and high-level radwaste was extracted by remotely controlled robots operating inside the shielding structure. Gamma visor was used for detection of high-level radwaste or fragments in the mass concrete being destroyed and for pointing remotely controlled robots accordingly. The paper describes peculiarities of radiation monitoring in the course of operations on disposition of the repository. For rapid detection of changes in radiation conditions in the working areas, there was used a gamma locator with on-line transmission of its data to a PC and their processing. The same measuring and extraction equipment were used for remediation of high-level radwaste repository at the Gas Plant complexes.
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