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The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. There is conflicting evidence as to why. However, studies suggest that it is not an apparent increase resulting from enhanced diagnostic practices, but a true increase with more affected patients. This study aimed to assess racial variation in thyroid cancer.
A narrative systematic review of the literature was conducted.
Eight retrospective cohort studies were identified, comprising 611 777 adult patients. Variations exist between racial groups, which are also dependent on gender; white patients have a slightly higher male population when compared to their counterparts. Black and white patients have a higher proportion of follicular cancer. Hispanics were younger at the age of diagnosis. Outcomes are greatly affected by socioeconomic status.
This study identified many gaps in the way that these types of data are presented. A more concise manner of reporting, with individual-level risk factors, is recommended.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design.
A total of 1355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2).
The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = 0.08, p = 0.002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%.
Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions.
This paper will discuss the structure-property model developed that correlates the tensile modulus to the elastic properties and angular distribution of constituent graphitic layers for carbon fiber derived from a polyethylene precursor. In addition, a high-temperature fiber tensile device was built to enable heating of carbon fiber bundles at a variable rate from 25 °C to greater than ∼2300 °C, while simultaneously applying a tensile stress. This capability combined with synchrotron wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), enabled observation in situ and in real time of the microstructural transformation from different carbon fiber precursors to high-modulus carbon fiber. Experiments conducted using PAN- and PE-derived fiber precursors reveal stark differences in their carbonization and high-temperature graphitization behavior.
The microstructure and orientation relationships of epitaxial (111)-oriented SrTiO3 thin films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on epitaxial (111)-oriented Pt/Ti electrodes on sapphire were investigated using x-ray diffraction, conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We show that the epitaxial growth of (111)-oriented SrTiO3 films was promoted by thin Ti adhesion layers underneath the Pt electrode. The SrTiO3 films nucleated with two twin-related orientation variants, rotated by 180° about the 〈111〉 surface normal. The twin boundaries were oriented approximately normal to the film plane, but no strong preference for a specific boundary plane was observed. Growth mechanisms and the relationships to the dielectric properties are discussed.
Factors which affect the carcass composition of beef cattle include breed type, plane of nutrition and slaughter weight. With increasing weight, the relative proportions of the carcass joints and tissues change and if these changes were known or could be predicted then cattle could be slaughtered at the desired carcass composition. Dairy bred calves for beef production can be classified into three breed categories -straightbred Friesians, early maturing beef breed x Friesians and late maturing beef breed x Friesians. The objectives of the present study were to compare the changes in carcass composition associated with changes in slaughter weight in Friesian (FF), Hereford x Friesian (HF) and Charolais x Friesian (CF) steers and to determine the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) content.
Recent advances in X-ray laser research have significantly increased the possibilities for X-ray laser applications. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of pointing and focusing of a soft X-ray laser beam. A LLNL selenium soft X-ray laser at 206 and 209 Å was used in these experiments. Two state of the art 76 mm diameter multilayer mirrors were used to collimate and refocus the laser onto a set of cross hairs which were constructed from 100 μm diameter wires. The cross hairs were located 4.6 m from the X-ray laser source. Results show that the laser can be pointed to within 75 μrad and focused to a 235 μm diameter spot. It is expected that eventually spot sizes near 100 μm and flux levels of 100J/cm2 at X-ray irradiances up to 1012W/cm2 can be provided to a remote application, using a similar beam relaying system.
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