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One of the key factors to improve swine production sustainability is the use of agro-industrial by-products in feeds, such as olive by-products. However, it is necessary to assess its effects on the overall production process, including the animal and the environment. With this aim, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of including a partially defatted olive cake (PDOC) in pig diets on growth performance, faecal microbiota, carcass quality and gas emission from the slurry. Two finishing diets were formulated, a control (C) diet and a diet with PDOC included at 120 g/kg. Eighty finishing male pigs Duroc-Danbred × (Landrace × Large White) of 60.4 ± 7.00 kg BW were divided between these two treatments. During the finishing period (60 to 110 kg BW, 55 days) average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded. Faecal samples from the rectum of 16 animals per treatment were incubated for bacteria enumeration. At the end of finishing period, backfat thickness and loin depth (LD) were measured. Animals were slaughtered to obtain carcass weight and carcass composition parameters, and subcutaneous fat was sampled to analyse the fatty acid (FA) profile. In addition greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions were measured during pig slurry storage using the methodology of dynamic flux chambers. An initial slurry characterisation and biochemical methane potential (B0) were also determined. No significant differences between treatments were found in performance, carcass quality and microbial counts with the exception of LD, which was lower in PDOC compared with C animals (45.5 v. 47.5 mm, SEM: 0.62; P = 0.020). The FA profile of the subcutaneous fat did not differ between treatments, but the monounsaturated FA (MUFA) concentration was higher and the polyunsaturated FA was lower in the animals fed PDOC (50.9 v. 48.3, SEM: 0.48, P < 0.001; 17.6 v. 19.3, SEM: 0.30, P < 0.001 in mg/100 g of Total FA, for PDOC and C animals, respectively). The initial pig slurry characterisation only showed differences in ADF concentration that was higher (P < 0.05) in the slurry from PDOC treatment. Regarding gas emission, slurries from both treatments emitted similar amounts of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as B0 values. The results obtained suggest that PDOC may be included in balanced pig diets at rates of up to 120 g/kg without negative effects on performance, carcass quality, gut microflora and slurry gas emission, while improving the MUFA concentration of subcutaneous fat.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
The effects of coherent structures in plasma edge turbulence are an important topic in the study of plasma cross-field transport in magnetically confined plasmas. To properly characterize these structures, their temperature must be measured, which is often done by using Langmuir probes. In this work, the techniques of Langmuir sweep and triple probe are used, considering the effect of plasma sheath expansion in both methods. It is shown that if the sheath expansion is ignored, the triple probe technique gives overestimated temperature values. In addition, the conditional analysis is applied to both techniques in order to evaluate the mean temperature time trace of the coherent structures. It is shown that these time traces can be distorted in the case of the triple probe technique, due to fact that coherent structures destroy the homogeneity condition on the pins array. Therefore, the sweep technique with a conditional selection of points is more suitable than the triple probe to study coherent structures related to bursts, as it performs a local measurement.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
Nanoparticles and nanopores of iron oxide were synthesized by electrochemical anodization, in an electrolytic medium of ammonium fluoride (NH4F), deionized water and ethylene glycol. After anodization, the Fe foils were annealed at 450 °C for 2 hours. Different anodization times and two concentrations of NH4F (0.1 M and 1.2 M) were evaluated, under static conditions at room temperature. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed nanopores (0.1 M) and nanoparticles (1.2 M). Eight vibration modes characteristic of α-Fe2O3 were found with Raman spectroscopy technique. Relationship between the modes Eu(LO) and 2Eu(LO) was found, therefore, their association with the disorder in the crystalline structure can be determined and it was also found that 2Eu(LO) intensity mode at a concentration of 1.2 M is larger than 0.1 M nanostructures, the FWHM of the A1g mode at 227 cm-1 corresponding to the Fe3+ ions and the Eg at 293 cm-1 mode caused by the O2- ions was also analyzed and founded that the crystalline structure of hematite can be determined by the A1g mode at 227 cm-1.
Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007–2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons. A national distribution map showing Chagas disease incidence was generated. An increase of new cases was identified throughout the country (rates from 0.37 to 0.81 per 100 000 inhabitants). Of the total cases accumulated (7388), the major cases were attributed to the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Oaxaca, Morelos and Yucatán. The analysis per age groups and gender revealed that, in most age groups, the incidence was higher in the male population. The most number of cases was identified in spring and summer; a direct relationship between the environmental temperature increase and the number of new cases was identified. The analysis showed that the rate of Chagas disease increased presumably due to state programmes; the search for new cases has expanded and we speculate that the disease is associated with occupational activities. These results summarise and recall how important it is to implement the monitoring of Chagas disease mainly in south states of the Mexican Republic in order to implement strategies to control this disease.
We explore the circumstellar effects on the Li and Ca abundances determination in a complete sample of massive Galactic AGB stars. The Li abundance is an indicator of the hot bottom burning (HBB) activation, while the total Ca abundance could be affected by overproduction of the short-lived radionuclide 41Ca by the s-process. Li abundances were previously studied with hydrostatic models, while Ca abundances are determined here for the first time. The pseudo-dynamical abundances of Li and Ca are very similar to the hydrostatic ones, indicating that circumstellar effects are almost negligible. The new Li abundances confirm the (super-)Li-rich character of the sample Li-detected stars, supporting the HBB activation in massive Galactic AGB stars. Most sample stars display nearly solar Ca abundances that are consistent with predictions from the s-process nucleosynthesis models. A minority of the sample stars show a significant Ca depletion. Possible reasons for their (unexpected) low Ca content are given.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.