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The effects of coherent structures in plasma edge turbulence are an important topic in the study of plasma cross-field transport in magnetically confined plasmas. To properly characterize these structures, their temperature must be measured, which is often done by using Langmuir probes. In this work, the techniques of Langmuir sweep and triple probe are used, considering the effect of plasma sheath expansion in both methods. It is shown that if the sheath expansion is ignored, the triple probe technique gives overestimated temperature values. In addition, the conditional analysis is applied to both techniques in order to evaluate the mean temperature time trace of the coherent structures. It is shown that these time traces can be distorted in the case of the triple probe technique, due to fact that coherent structures destroy the homogeneity condition on the pins array. Therefore, the sweep technique with a conditional selection of points is more suitable than the triple probe to study coherent structures related to bursts, as it performs a local measurement.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007–2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons. A national distribution map showing Chagas disease incidence was generated. An increase of new cases was identified throughout the country (rates from 0.37 to 0.81 per 100 000 inhabitants). Of the total cases accumulated (7388), the major cases were attributed to the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Oaxaca, Morelos and Yucatán. The analysis per age groups and gender revealed that, in most age groups, the incidence was higher in the male population. The most number of cases was identified in spring and summer; a direct relationship between the environmental temperature increase and the number of new cases was identified. The analysis showed that the rate of Chagas disease increased presumably due to state programmes; the search for new cases has expanded and we speculate that the disease is associated with occupational activities. These results summarise and recall how important it is to implement the monitoring of Chagas disease mainly in south states of the Mexican Republic in order to implement strategies to control this disease.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.
Reducing the time available for grazing from 20h to 5h daily, and replacing this with access to a maize silage/soyabean meal diet indoors had no significant effect on milk yield in spring (Hernandez-Mendo and Leaver, 1999). Grazing conditions in autumn present additional problems of shorter daylength and accumulated herbage contamination. The objectives were to examine the production and behavioural responses of grazing dairy cows to reducing access to grazing and increasing access to a maize silage/soyabean meal diet offered indoors.
High rates of decline in milk yield of >3.0% /week are common when dairy cows are grazing due to low herbage intakes. Under indoor feeding conditions rates of decline are often <2.0% /week. Behavioural factors control intake at grass, in particular the time spent grazing and the rate of intake. Low intakes produce high rates of decline in milk yield and potentially could lead to problems of poor fertility and welfare in high merit cows. The objective of this research is to examine the replacement of time available for grazing with time made available for eating forage-based diets indoors. This experiment was carried out in the spring.
The study of the chemical stability of solar selective coatings (SSC) for concentrated solar power (CSP) becomes essential for their use at high temperatures. In this paper, the short range order around Mo in Mo-Si3N4 cermets is studied for the first time by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The information obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies gives new insights of the origin of the optical behavior of the cermets cermets after vacuum and air annealing treatments. The established optical and structural correlation becomes of great importance for the design and optimization of SSC for practical applications.
ZnO1-xTex thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron co-sputtering using pure Zn and Te targets. Te atomic concentration in the films ranged from x=0 to 0.33 by adjusting the applied power on the targets or varying the cathode-substrate distance. Chemical composition and crystalline structure were determined by RBS experiments and X-ray Diffraction, respectively. For low Te atomic concentrations (x≤0.04) the deposited ZnO1-xTex films showed a crystalline structure ZnO wurtzite type however, for increasing Te concentration significant broadening and decreasing intensities of the main peaks belonging to pure ZnO films together with some weak peaks characteristic of crystalline Trizinc Tellurate salt have appeared. For the highest x values some non-identified weak peaks beside to some others peaks corresponding to the crystalline phases mentioned above as well as, a broad band probably associated to amorphous TeO2 phase were observed. A preliminary optical characterization of the samples point out the possibility of different electronic transitions within the ZnO band gap.