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Although history of childhood trauma is present in nearly 50% of bipolar patients, the effects of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disorder are rarely investigated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of childhood trauma on psychotic symptoms seen in patients with bipolar disorder.
One-hundred DSM-IV-TR diagnosed bipolar patients who were either manic or depressive were recruited from inpatient units of Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery. Patients were initially evaluated by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Scales for Assessment of Positive Symptoms. Patients were also evaluated by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Dissociative Experiences Scale in euthymia which was defined by scores of < 7 in YMRS, < 4 in MADRAS
There were no differences between the patients with and without a history of psychotic episode in terms of age at onset, duration of illness and episode characteristics. Patients with a history of psychotic episode were hospitalized more. CTQ physical abuse scores were higher in male comparing to female. CTQ sexual abuse scores were higher in female comparing to male. CTQ emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse and total scores were higher in patients who had at least one psychotic episode in lifetime than in patients without a history of psychotic episode.
The history of childhood trauma should be investigated and therapeutic interventions for childhood trauma should be added to the standard treatment plan of bipolar patients.
To evaluate the effects of autologous serum usage on throat pain, haemorrhage and tonsillar fossa epithelisation in patients after tonsillectomy.
Thirty-two patients (aged 4–15 years) were included in the study. Tonsillectomy was performed and autologous serum was administered topically to the right tonsillar fossa during the operation, and at 8 and 24 hours post-operatively. The left side served as the control. A visual analogue scale was used to record the patient's pain every day. Each patient's oropharynx was observed on the 5th and 10th post-operative days to examine bleeding and epithelisation.
The pain scores for the side administered autologous serum were significantly lower than those for the control side, on the night following the operation and on the 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th post-operative days. Tonsillar fossa epithelisation was significantly accelerated on the study side compared with the control side on the 5th and 10th post-operative days.
In tonsillectomy patients, topically administered autologous serum contributed to throat pain relief and tonsillar fossa epithelisation during the post-operative period.
To investigate endoscopic staging, and nitric oxide levels in the polyp tissue, in patients with nasal polyposis undergoing glucocorticoid therapy.
Nasal polyposis was evaluated using endoscopic staging and measurement of polyp tissue nitric oxide levels (chemiluminescence method). Forty-five nasal polyposis patients received either nasal therapy (n = 15), oral therapy (n = 15) or combined therapy (n = 15). Pre-treatment and post-treatment staging and nitric oxide levels were evaluated.
Endoscopic grading indicated significant post-treatment staging improvements in the oral (p = 0.016) and combined (p = 0.016) groups. Post-treatment staging differed significantly between the three groups (p = 0.041), with greater improvements in the oral and combined groups. All groups showed significantly lower post-treatment nitric oxide levels, compared with baseline, but post-treatment levels did not differ significantly between groups. A significant association was found between treatment response and nitric oxide level alteration.
This study demonstrates the favourable effects of glucocorticoids on nasal polyposis, and alteration in nitric oxide tissue levels post-treatment. Nitric oxide level in nasal polyp tissue could be an indicator of treatment response, and may aid surgical decision-making by detecting cases that probably will not respond to medical treatment.
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