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The objective of this work was to determine the rumen degradation characteristics over the growing season of maize stover in two contrasting zones in the central highlands of Mexico. Twenty four maize plots were selected, three harvest periods P1, P2, and P3 were established in order to evaluate degradation characteristics at different development stages, for ‘criollo’ maize varieties of three grain colours (white, yellow and black) representing different cultivation practices given their different growing cycles. In vitro gas production (GP) incubations were carried out, and cumulative gas volumes were fitted to the Krishnamoorthy, Soller, Steingass and Menke (1991) model. The results indicate that more research is needed to evaluate why maize degradability and fermentation characteristics as exemplified by this work are not greatly affected by time.
We have studied the structural and morphological properties on the pyrochlore (Er2-x Srx)Ru2O6 system, for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.15. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) and sol-gel acrylamide polymerization (SGAP). Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to follow the thermal transformations such as reagents decomposition, phase transformation, chemical stability, and volatilization of organic material of samples. The reagents and synthesized products by the different methods of synthesis were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). All samples crystallize Er2Ru2O6 PDF (72-7620) in the cubic unit cell with Fd
m (No. 227) space group and form a solid solution up to x = 0.15. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows considerable variations and similitudes in sizes, very few phases and shapes of polycrystals can be observed. Polycrystalline samples prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) present a grain size varies between 77 nm to 250 nm.
Harnessing the properties of imidazolium species, antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was attained by binary-grafting 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or N-isopropylacrylamide, followed by N-vinylimidazole onto polypropylene (PP) monofilaments (sutures) using 60Co γ-rays. Ulterior functionalization with methyl iodide was carried out to endow brushes with antimicrobial activity on the PP surface. The PP-grafted sutures were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy attenuated total reflection, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis, and regarding the mechanical properties and the responsiveness to pH and temperature. Tests were performed on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus achieving large inhibition zones.
The influence that the kinematics of pitching and heaving 2D airfoils has on the aerodynamic forces is investigated using direct numerical simulations and a force decomposition algorithm. Large-amplitude motions are considered (of the order of one chord), with moderate Reynolds numbers and reduced frequencies of order
, varying the mean pitch angle and the phase shift between the pitching and heaving motions. Our results show that the surface vorticity contribution (viscous effect) to the aerodynamic force is negligible compared with the contributions from the body motion (fluid inertia) and the vorticity within the flow (circulation). For the range of parameters considered here, the latter tends to be instantaneously oriented in the direction normal to the chord of the airfoil. Based on the results discussed in this paper, a reduced-order model for the instantaneous aerodynamic force is proposed, taking advantage of the force decomposition and the chord-normal orientation of the contribution from vorticity within the flow to the total aerodynamic force. The predictions of the proposed model are compared with those of a similar model from the literature, showing a noticeable improvement in the prediction of the mean thrust, and a smaller improvement in the prediction of the mean lift and the instantaneous force coefficients.
This paper proposes the use of a generalized finite difference method for the numerical simulation of free surface single phase flows during mould filling process which are common in some industrial processes particularly in the area of metal casting. A novel and efficient idea for the computation of the normal vectors for free surface flows is introduced and presented for the first time. The incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved by the well-known Chorin's projection method. After we showed the main ideas behind the meshless approach, some numerical results in two and three dimensions are presented corresponding to mould filling process simulation.
Clostridium difficile infection has gained importance in recent years as a result of the rapid spread of epidemic strains, including hypervirulent strains. This study reports the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile obtained from hospitalized patients in Chile. Seven hundred and nineteen isolates of toxigenic C. difficile from 45 hospitals across the country were characterized through toxin profile, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and sequencing of the tcdC gene. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on a subset of selected strains. PFGE typing of 719 isolates of C. difficile produced 60 PFGE patterns (subtypes). Subtype 1 was predominant (79% of isolates) and related to the hypervirulent strain (NAP1). Subtype 1 showed 73% relatedness with nine other subtypes, which had a similar tcdC deletion. Subtype 1 corresponded to ribotype 027 and ST1. This report shows the wide dissemination of the hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/ST1 in Chile.
In this work, the annealing effects at 180°C in Aluminum-ZnO contacts as function of time were studied. Also, the application in TFTs of ZnO films obtained at low-temperature (200°C) are presented. The ZnO films obtained by ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis at 200 °C were deposited over Aluminum contacts on SiO2/Si wafers to demonstrate the use of active layer in thin-film transistors. The results show that an improvement can be obtained in metal-ZnO interfaces by low-temperature annealing treatments. However, long annealing time degrade the metal-ZnO interface and may affect the electrical performance of the device.
The aim of this study was to monitor the spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 pandemic and the following two influenza seasons 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 using a Bayesian Poisson mixed regression model; and implement this model of geographical analysis in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System to obtain maps of influenza incidence for every week. In the pandemic wave the maps showed influenza activity spreading from west to east. The 2010–2011 influenza epidemic wave plotted a north-west/south-east pattern of spread. During the 2011–2012 season the spread of influenza was geographically heterogeneous. The most important source of variability in the model is the temporal term. The model of spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence is a supplementary tool of influenza surveillance in Spain.
Thermotropic polymers are thermally treated in air at temperatures Ta, where ΔT =Ta- Ts→n=40°C, and Ts→n is the solid-to-nematic transition. Samples are extruded thin films of a series of thermotropic random copolyesters termed B-N, COTBP and RD1000. The thermal treatment produces a second endotherm without changing Ts→n for B-N and RD1000. However, for COTBP Ts→n is significantly increased. Regardless of the complex thermal behavior exhibited by the thermotropes, the thermal treatment produces a significant increase in Young's modulus, more than 30% for B-N and over 100% for COTBP. The increase in mechanical modulus is correlated with a thermally-induced fiber-like morphology.
An efficient synthetic route for the synthesis of carcerands derived from tetramethylchlorocavitands and its tetraesters derivative were synthesized. A large-scale preparation was achieved in good yield. These carcerands are in bridging unit between oxygen atoms, i.e. contains a 3,5 dihydroxybencyl alcohol units. 1H, and 13C NMR in solution, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, MS-FAB+ spectrometry and elemental analysis confirmed the structure of this carcerands.
In this research nanometric particles from luminescent (625nm) porous silicon film were synthesized. This particles were later inoculated in bacterial strains of B. subtilis (BSi) and K. pneumoniae (KSi). A comparison of the behavior of their growth curve and the ones reported for C. xerosis (XSi) and E. coli (ESi) in presence of silicon nanoparticles is presented. The growth curve of BSi, as well as the KSi, present changes compared to their standard curves. The BSi growth curve grows below the standard curve after the fifth hour, while in the KSi this happens after the eighth hour. Based on our preliminary findings we can speculate that at this point in time a critical population is present, and this may give rise to the possible incorporation of the silicon particles by the bacteria, or a possible pleomorphism inhibits reproduction. The stationary region, in both cases, takes place sooner than in the standard curve. No significant oscillations are observed in any case, which differs form the XSi curve, were oscillations of intervals of almost 1 hour were reported. In addition, these curves have a different behavior when compared to the ESi growth curve, in which no significant differences between the standard and the particle containing sample were reported.
The transformation of benzoin to tetraphenylfuran catalyzed with a superacid sulfonic clay under different reaction conditions was investigated. Three products with different yields were produced under a nitrogen stream and four products were obtained under an air atmosphere.
The photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) and oxidation of naphthalene using UV light and TiO2 were investigated with variations in the pH and Cr (VI)/naphthalene ratio. The photochemical reduction of Cr (VI) single system was not observed, whereas the photochemical oxidation of naphthalene was significantly high. However, the reduction reaction rates of Cr (VI) and oxidation of naphthalene were improved in the system UV/TiO2. The removal of Cr (VI) decreased dramatically with increasing pH, in contrast, the naphthalene removal was not influenced by the pH. The presence of naphthalene functioned as a hole scavenger enhancing the photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) by the photogenerated electrons, while the removal of naphthalene was decreasing at increasing Cr (VI) content.
Different synthesis procedures of Pt supported on tungstated zirconia catalysts (Pt/WOx-ZrO2) were investigated with the aim to elucidate the different WOx nanostructures developed on the zirconia surface depending on the preparation route. Pt/WOx-ZrO2 catalysts were synthesized by the coprecipitation and impregnation methods and pretreated by various procedures such as different calcinations temperatures or the use of reflux. The catalysts characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) and nitrogen physisorption, and the catalytic activity was evaluated in the n-hexane isomerization reaction. The results indicate that the development of active sites for isomerization of n-hexane is enhanced by the stabilization of the WOx nanostructures on the surface of zirconia, before the formation of the WO3 crystallites, and it largely depends on the synthesis method.