To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
To achieve their conservation goals individuals, communities and organizations need to acquire a diversity of skills, knowledge and information (i.e. capacity). Despite current efforts to build and maintain appropriate levels of conservation capacity, it has been recognized that there will need to be a significant scaling-up of these activities in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the rapid increase in the number and extent of environmental problems in the region. We present a range of socio-economic contexts relevant to four key areas of African conservation capacity building: protected area management, community engagement, effective leadership, and professional e-learning. Under these core themes, 39 specific recommendations are presented. These were derived from multi-stakeholder workshop discussions at an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. At the meeting 185 delegates (practitioners, scientists, community groups and government agencies) represented 105 organizations from 24 African nations and eight non-African nations. The 39 recommendations constituted six broad types of suggested action: (1) the development of new methods, (2) the provision of capacity building resources (e.g. information or data), (3) the communication of ideas or examples of successful initiatives, (4) the implementation of new research or gap analyses, (5) the establishment of new structures within and between organizations, and (6) the development of new partnerships. A number of cross-cutting issues also emerged from the discussions: the need for a greater sense of urgency in developing capacity building activities; the need to develop novel capacity building methodologies; and the need to move away from one-size-fits-all approaches.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
There has been considerable speculation in recent years about the evolution of radio galaxies in clusters. The discovery of powerful X-ray emission with an apparently thermal spectrum from a considerable number of clusters has been attributed to a hot (108K) intracluster gas with an electron density of ∼ 10-3 cm -3 at the cluster centre (see e.g. McHardy 1978). Such a gas surrounding a radio galaxy may conceivably retard the expansion or diffusion of the relativistic electrons and thus allow the source to retain its identity for longer intervals than is the case for field galaxies.
We assessed evidence of exposure to viruses and bacteria in an unmanaged and long-isolated population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, 65 km west of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The sheep harbour many metazoan and protozoan parasites but their exposure to viral and bacterial pathogens is unknown. We tested for herpes viral DNA in leucocytes and found that 21 of 42 tested sheep were infected with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). We also tested 750 plasma samples collected between 1997 and 2010 for evidence of exposure to seven other viral and bacterial agents common in domestic Scottish sheep. We found evidence of exposure to Leptospira spp., with overall seroprevalence of 6·5%. However, serological evidence indicated that the population had not been exposed to border disease, parainfluenza, maedi-visna, or orf viruses, nor to Chlamydia abortus. Some sheep tested positive for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) but, in the absence of retrospective faecal samples, the presence of this infection could not be confirmed. The roles of importation, the pathogen–host interaction, nematode co-infection and local transmission warrant future investigation, to elucidate the transmission ecology and fitness effects of the few viral and bacterial pathogens on Hirta.
Modern photoelectric techniques yield magnitudes and colors of stars with accuracies of the order of a few thousandths and a few hundredths of a magnitude respectively. Hence for star clusters it is possible to derive highly accurate color-magnitude arrays since all of the members of a cluster may be considered to be at the same distance from the observer. It is much more difficult to do this for the nearby stars where all of the objects concerned are at different, and often poorly determined, distances. If one depends upon trigonometric parallaxes, the bulk of the reliable individual values will refer to main sequence stars, and while the mean luminosities of brighter stars are given reasonably well by this method, the scatter introduced into a color-magnitude array by using individual trigonometrically determined luminosities could obscure important features. Somewhat similar objections could be raised against the use of the usual spectroscopic parallaxes which also should be quite good for the main sequence but undoubtedly exhibit appreciable scatter for some, at least, of the brighter stars.
Little is known about how age influences the ways in which cardiac fibroblasts interact with the extracellular matrix. We investigated the deformation of collagen substrates by neonatal and adult rat cardiac fibroblasts in monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) cultures, and quantified the expression of three collagen receptors [discoidin domain receptor (DDR)1, DDR2, and β1 integrin] and the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in these cells. We report that adult fibroblasts contracted 3D collagen substrates significantly less than their neonate counterparts, whereas no differences were observed in monolayer cultures. Adult cells had lower expression of β1 integrin and α-SMA than neonate cultures, and we detected significant correlations between the expression of α-SMA and each of the collagen receptors in neonate cells but not in adult cells. Consistent with recent work demonstrating age-dependent interactions with myocytes, our results indicate that interactions between cardiac fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix change with age.
Incorporation of Group III, IV, V dopants in silicon occurs as a result of solute trapping during laser annealing. Distribution coefficients and substitutional solubilities are far greater than equilibrium values, and can be functions of growth velocity and crystal orientation. Mechanisms limiting dopant incorporation at high concentrations are identified and discussed.
Since its establishment in 1997, the undergraduate program at the University of Maryland has successfully established laboratories where new findings are introduced and used to teach the basic concepts and basic experimental methods in Materials Science and Engineering. This presents the challenge of changing the materials, keeping in mind that the students are being introduced for the first time to many of the concepts. In the junior laboratory of materials, we have successfully changed three laboratories (optical microscopy, rectifying components and X-ray) and a demonstration (TEM) in order to introduce nanomaterials and biomaterials. These laboratories show that currently used techniques can aid in studying the new developments in materials and that most, if not all, the basic concepts can be applied in studying them. They also help the students look at the effects of the structure – processing – properties relationship that is basic to Materials Science and Engineering. We relate all laboratories to experiments and studies currently happening in materials science, even if we have not had the opportunity or the facilities to change it. The laboratory has been approved by ABET 2000.
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) offers benefits such as the capability for growth of compositionally-tailored heterostructures and in-situ doping of HgCdTe alloys. These capabilities were applied to the growth of long wave infrared unispectral focal plane arrays (FPA) with 480×4 elements. The detectivity (D*) map of the FPA demonstrated performance that was higher than the specification value, with no defective channels. Two-color detectors with the n-p-n architecture, for the simultaneous detection of two closely spaced bands in the midwave infrared spectrum were also grown by MBE. These devices exhibited sharp turn-off and turn-on in both bands. The quantum efficiency was greater than 70% and average R°A values exceeded 1×106 Ω-cm2 in both bands. These result demonstrate that high performance HgCdTe devices can be grown by MBE.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of highpower microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or “microwave melter” is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to I volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.
Exfoliation of SiC by hydrogen implantation and subsequent annealing forms the basis for a thin-film separation process which. when combined with hydrophilic wafer bonding, can be exploited to produce silicon-carbide-on-insulator, SiCOI. SiC thin films produced by this process exhibit unacceptably high resistivity because defects generated by the implant neutralize electrical carriers. Separation occurs because of chemical interaction of hydrogen with dangling bonds within microvoids created by the implant, and physical stresses due to gas-pressure effects during post-implant anneal. Experimental results show that exfoliation of SiC is dependent upon the concentration of implanted hydrogen, but the damage generated by the implant approaches a point when exfoliation is, in fact, retarded. This is attributed to excessive damage at the projected range of the implant which inhibits physical processes of implantinduced cleaving. Damage is controlled independently of hydrogen dosage by elevating the temperature of the SiC during implant in order to promote dynamic annealing. The resulting decrease in damage is thought to promote growth of micro-cracks which form a continuous cleave. Channeled H_ implantation enhances the cleaving process while simultaneously minimizing residual damage within the separated film. It is shown that high-temperature irradiation and channeling each reduces the hydrogen fluence required to affect separation of a thin film and results in a lower concentration of defects. This increases the potential for producing SiCOI which is sufficiently free of defects and, thus, more easily electrically activated.
This paper explores how race/ethnicity and perceptions of racial discrimination and inequality shape beliefs about the implications of an Obama presidency for U.S. race relations. Specifically, using data from a June/July 2008 Gallup/USA Today survey, we examine how African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites differ in their perceptions of the importance of an Obama victory and in beliefs about the implications of such for race relations, racial progress, and opportunities for Blacks in their careers and in national politics. We also examine how perceptions of the extent and nature of racial discrimination and inequality shape these outcomes (overall and by race/ethnicity). Results show that African Americans, relative to Whites and Hispanics, are especially likely to see an Obama victory as important and meaningful in terms of relatively abstract notions of racial change. In contrast, Hispanics are more likely than African Americans and Whites to believe that an Obama win will translate into concrete societal changes, such as expanded opportunities for Blacks in work and politics. In addition, perceived discrimination and inequality positively shape all of the outcomes under study (more perceived discrimination equals more importance and optimism attached to an Obama win), though this association is especially strong among Whites—a pattern possibly rooted in divergent meanings attached to perceived discrimination and inequality by race/ethnicity. Overall, our findings suggest that African Americans view an Obama victory as meaningful primarily because of its symbolic significance, rather than because they believe it will result in substantive racial progress. We conclude by offering some speculation and selected questions for future research on race and U.S. politics.