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Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory, multi-system disease that often begins in childhood and characterised by inflammatory skin, nails, scalp, and joint manifestations. The inflammation in psoriasis may promote some effect on the cardiac conduction system.
The aim of this study is to investigate myocardial repolarisation anomaly on the conducting system in the paediatric psoriasis using P wave dispersion, Tpeak–Tend interval, and Tp-e/QT ratio.
Forty-two patients diagnosed with psoriasis and 37 age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled in the study. Electrocardiographic parameters in psoriasis and control group were recorded from an electrocardiogram for each patient.
The results indicated that the parameters including Pdis, QTc dis, Tp-e dis interval, and Tp-e max/QTmax ratios, which are known to be key indicators for the prediction of severe atrial or ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death and also important parameters used as the indicators for the non-invasive evaluation of the transmural heterogeneity were significantly longer in the study group compared to the control group (p < 0.05).
This study includes the evidence linking psoriasis with increased myocardial repolarisation heterogeneity. These findings suggest that this patient population may be at an increased risk for arrhythmias. Our findings may be a basis for further studies.
This chapter addresses key questions about the basis of cancer susceptibility in African people, as well as the uniqueness of the population genetics and genotype–phenotype relationship that resulted during social transition. Social transition encompasses the change of lifestyle from a rural subsistence one into an urban market-oriented, technology dependent, and predominantly sedentary mode of life, as well as changes that occur in the population genetics as a result of changes from ethnically defined structured populations into panmictic populations of an urban nature, as currently seen in megacities. Although humans passed through several periods of transition in history, the current one is the most profound.
This review aims to familiarize the reader with research efforts on the cultivation media of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We have also included a brief discussion on standard ingredients used in LAB media and chemically defined media as related to bacterial growth requirements. Recent research has focused on modifying standard media for the enumeration, differentiation, isolation, and identification of starter cultures and probiotics. Even though large numbers of these media have been developed to serve dairy microbial control, they have failed to provide consistent results. The research consequently points to the need to develop a reliable lactobacilli growth medium for the dairy industry.
Using high-precision photometry from the Kepler mission, we investigate patterns of spot activity on the K1-type subgiant component of KIC 11560447, a short-period late-type eclipsing binary. We tested the validity of maximum entropy reconstructions of starspots by numerical simulations. Our procedure successfully captures up to three large spot clusters migrating in longitude. We suggest a way to measure a lower limit for stellar differential rotation, using slopes of spot patterns in the reconstructed time-longitude diagram. We find solar-like differential rotation and recurrent spot activity with a long-term trend towards a dominant axisymmetric spot distribution during the period of observations.
Metabolic syndrome is linked to the consumption of fructose-rich diets. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions perinatally can cause epigenetic changes that programme an individual to predispose or protect them from the development of metabolic diseases later. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) reportedly has anti-obesity and hypocholesterolaemic properties in adults. We investigated the impact of neonatal intake of HS on the programming of metabolism by fructose. A total of 85 4-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups. The control group (n=27, 12 males, 15 females) received distilled water at 10 ml/kg body weight. The other groups received either 50 mg/kg (n=30, 13 males, 17 females) or 500 mg/kg (n=28, 11 males, 17 females) of an HS aqueous calyx extract orally till postnatal day (PND) 14. There was no intervention from PND 14 to PND 21 when the pups were weaned. The rats in each group were then divided into two groups; one continued on a normal diet and the other received fructose (20% w/v) in their drinking water for 30 days. The female rats that were administered with HS aqueous calyx extract as neonates were protected against fructose-induced hypertriglyceridaemia and increased liver lipid deposition. The early administration of HS resulted in a significant (P⩽0.05) increase in plasma cholesterol concentrations with or without a secondary fructose insult. In males, HS prevented the development of fructose-induced hypercholesterolaemia. The potential beneficial and detrimental effects of neonatal HS administration on the programming of metabolism in rats need to be considered in the long-term well-being of children.
Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital.
A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16.
A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients (1.9%) died in the emergency room while 235 bodies were brought in dead.
Less than three percent among the victims of road crashes had formal prehospital care and shorter hospital arrival time. Current facilities for emergency prehospital care in Lagos are inadequate and require improvement. Training lay first-responders, who bring the majority of the injured to hospital, in basic first-aid may improve prehospital care in Lagos.
This article reports investigation of the effects of high-rate stochastic micro-mechanics on the produced particulate size distribution during ball milling of reactive bimetallic foils (nanoheaters), by experimental and computational modeling. In particular, Ni-Al foils are ball-milled at various load charges, revolution rates and process durations, and the resulting particulate geometries are characterized by micrograph statistical analysis. Numerical simulation of the evolving particulate structure is based on coalescence and fragmentation of flexible monometallic ellipsoidal primitives, impacted by milling balls and vial walls with kinetic theory-based kinematics. Particulates are constrained by discrete compliant and continuum media and undergo conceptual ideal elastic transformations modeled by strain energy methods, and recast into inelastic frictional and plasticity-driven welding and fracture events. Finally the theoretical model predictions of particulate size distribution are validated against laboratory microscopy observations.
Homozygous homeobox A1 (HOXA1) mutations cause a spectrum of abnormalities in humans including bilateral profound deafness. This study evaluates the possible role of HOXA1 mutations in familial, non-syndromic sensorineural deafness.
Forty-eight unrelated Middle Eastern families with either consanguinity or familial deafness were identified in a large deafness clinic, and the proband from each family was evaluated by chart review, audiogram, neuroimaging, and HOXA1 sequencing.
All 48 probands had normal neuro-ophthalmologic and general medical examinations except for refractive errors. All had congenital non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss that was symmetric bilaterally and profound (>90 dBHL) in 33 individuals and varied from 40 to 90 dBHL in the remainder. Thirty-nine of these individuals had neuroimaging studies, all documenting normal internal carotid arteries and normal 6th, 7th, and 8th cranial nerves bilaterally. Of these, 27 had normal internal ear structures with the remaining 12 having mild to modest developmental abnormalities of the cochlea, semicircular canals, and/or vestibular aqueduct. No patient had homozygous HOXA1 mutations.
None of these patients with non-syndromic deafness had HOXA1 mutations. None had major inner ear anomalies, obvious cerebrovascular defects, or recognized congenital heart disease. HOXA1 is likely not a common cause of non-syndromic deafness in this Middle Eastern population.
Engineered remediation technologies such as denitrifying bioreactors target single contaminants along a nutrient transfer continuum. However, mixed contaminant discharges to a water body are more common from agricultural systems. Indeed, evidence presented herein indicates that pollution swapping within denitrifying bioreactor systems adds to such deleterious discharges. The present paper proposes a more holistic approach to contaminant remediation on farms, moving from the use of ‘denitrifying bioreactors’ to the concept of a ‘permeable reactive interceptor’ (PRI). Besides management changes, a PRI should contain additional remediation cells for specific contaminants in the form of solutes, particles or gases. Balance equations and case studies representing different geographic areas are presented and used to create weighting factors. Results showed that national legislation with respect to water and gaseous emissions will inform the eventual PRI design. As it will be expensive to monitor a system continuously in a holistic manner, it is suggested that developments in the field of molecular microbial ecology are essential to provide further insight in terms of element dynamics and the environmental controls on biotransformation and retention processes within PRIs. In turn, microbial and molecular fingerprinting could be used as an in-situ cost-effective tool to assess nutrient and gas balances during the operational phases of a PRI.
The present study aims to define the lowest effective prostaglandin E1 dose in patients with inadequacy of pulmonary blood flow and/or intracardiac blood mixing and those with inadequate systemic blood flow.
Patients with inadequacy of both pulmonary blood flow and/or blood mixing (Group 1) and those with inadequate systemic blood flow (Group 2) were retrospectively evaluated in two separate groups with regard to the prostaglandin E1 starting dose given in the referring facility, the lowest and the highest dose administered in our centre, treatment duration, adverse effects, and administered treatment.
No difference between the groups could be detected with respect to sex or birth weight (p=0.95 and 0.42, respectively). Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically similar in aspect of prostaglandin treatment duration (9.73±0.81 days versus 11.6±1.05 days, p=0.064). When compared with Group 2, the initial, maintenance and lowest efficient doses of prostaglandin E1 treatment were significantly lower and the titrated dose of prostaglandin E1 was significantly higher in Group 1 (p=0.001 for each).
Our findings indicate that the infusion of prostaglandin at a very low dose (0.003–0.005 mcg/kg/minute) is sufficient to maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus. A higher dose of prostaglandin E1 may be necessary in patients with inadequate systemic blood flow.
The generation of white light from CdS nanoparticles (NPs)
illuminated by UV-LED is presented. The synthesis of CdS
nanoparticles from the reaction of CdCl2 and the sulfur dissolved in
oleylamine in 1:2 mole ratio was used in the preparation of CdS
nanocrystalline. The PMMA film doped with CdS nanoparticles was prepared.
The generation of white light was found from illumination of the CdS/polymer
composite film by UV-LED of power 5 mW at λ = 385 nm. The white light
generation mechanism was explaining depending on mixing colors from the
illuminated CdS nanoparticles. The surface levels formed in the CdS optical
energy band due to nanostructure was estimated from Poisson equation
designed for this state. The chromaticity coordinates of the generated white
light was measured by the help of photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and the
correlated color temperature was found to be about 4000 K.
The photofission process has been recently considered for the production
of neutron rich isotopes and the development of radioactive beams. The radioprotection
hazard should be studied accordingly. A survey of the radiative electron energy loss
theory is reported in order to estimate numerically the bremsstrahlung production
of thick targets. The resulted bremsstrahlung angular and energy theoretical
distributions delivered from W and UCx thick converters are presented and compared
with previous results. This study is focused on initial kinetic energies of the
electron beam included in the range 30-60 MeV, suitable for the production of large
photon yields able to induce the 238U fission. The source term for 50 MeV incident
electrons is reported for radioprotection purposes.
Twelve female desert goat kids and an equal number of males were used to study meat production
potential of desert goats at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan. The kids were kept in
two separate groups according to sex. Kids were fed ad libitum a complete diet (a concentrate mix and
green lucerne) for 147 days from 12 July to 10 Oct 1997.
Male kids consumed more dry matter, had significantly greater liveweight gain and had heavier
slaughter weight and superior feed conversion efficiency than females. Carcass weight was significantly
greater in males than females but females dressed out heavier than males. Male carcasses had more
muscles and bone while female carcasses had more fat and trimmings.
Male goat kid carcasses yielded significantly (P<0·001) heavier wholesale cuts as single short
forequarter and neck while female kid carcasses yielded heavier wholesale cuts as leg and chump, best
end of neck as well as significantly (P<0·01) heavier loin and breast.
Exposure of Biomphalaria alexandrina to sublethal concentrations (0·125, 0·25 and 0·05 ppm) of the organophosporous insecticide, chlorpyrifos (Dursban), induced a reduction in egg production and egg hatchability. Exposure of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia to the insecticide (60 min, 0·05 ppm) prior to infection of B. alexandrina did not affect the subsequent production of cercariae. However, exposure of S. mansoni—infected snails to the insecticide until day 55, from day 20 to day 62 and from day 35 to 62 following infection resulted in blockage of cercarial shedding. cercarial shedding commenced in some snails when the treatement stopped. Exposure to the insecticide in concentrations of 0·125 and 0·25 ppm during the first 20 days following infection did not affect the subsequent production of cercariae, but exposure to 0·5 ppm during the first 20 days affected markedly the production of cercariae due to a high snail mortality. The findings indicate that the cercaria is the target stage for the activity of chlorpyrifos on the intramolluscan larval development. It is suggested that S. mansoni cercarial production in B. alexandrina may he a useful system for monitoring the effect of low concentrations of pesticides on the aquatic environment, and that the ability by chemical means to interrupt the cercarial production might be a useful tool in further analyses of important aspects of the snail/parasite relationship.
Two trials were undertaken to test the effect of different levels of diethylstilboestrol (DES) on the performance of Egyptian castrated male (wether), male (uncastrated) and female lambs. Ninety crossbred lambs in groups of 10, comprising 30 wethers, 30 male and 30 female lambs were used.