To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study investigated long-term survival outcomes in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients with known human papilloma virus status.
A case note review was performed of all patients undergoing primary surgery for oropharyngeal cancer in a single centre over a 10-year period. Human papilloma virus status was determined via dual modality testing. Associations between clinicopathological variables and survival were identified using a log-rank test.
Of the 107 cases in the study, 40 per cent (n = 41) were human papilloma virus positive. The positive and negative predictive values of p16 immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus status were 57 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. At a mean follow up of 59.5 months, 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 78 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively. Human papilloma virus status (p = 0.014), smoking status (p = 0.021) and tumour stage (p = 0.03) were significant prognostic indicators.
The long-term survival rates in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients were comparable to other studies. Variables including human papilloma virus status and tumour stage were associated with survival in patients treated with primary surgery; however, nodal stage and presence of extracapsular spread were non-prognostic.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been associated with the use of catecholamines; however, its development after the use of nebulised adrenaline for the management of acute airway obstruction has not previously been described.
A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, with tumour–node–metastasis staging of T3N2cM0, confirmed by biopsy and computed tomography, presented to the emergency department with acute airway obstruction. He was treated twice with nebulised adrenaline and intravenous dexamethasone. After a period of 24 hours, cardiac rhythm changes were noted on telemetry. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed widespread T-wave inversion and QT prolongation suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography demonstrated no coronary artery disease, but left ventricular angiography showed marked apical ballooning and apical wall akinesia consistent with a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can mimic true ischaemic heart disease and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in patients managed with nebulised adrenaline.
A systematic review was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different therapeutic interventions available for the management of isolated cricopharyngeal dysfunction.
Studies were identified using the following databases: Ovid (Medline, Embase), the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Google Scholar. An initial search identified 339 articles. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. Fifty-six relevant articles were inspected in more detail; of these, 47 were included in the qualitative analysis.
No relevant randomised trials were found. A range of case series were used to perform a qualitative analysis. Botulinum toxin A injection and cricopharyngeal dilatation were associated with a higher risk of recurrence, but appear to be more suitable in elderly and co-morbid patients. In those patients requiring formal myotomy, endoscopic approaches appear to be as effective but less morbid when compared with classical open surgery.
There is good evidence for the safety and efficacy of the different therapeutic options for isolated cricopharyngeal dysfunction. However, further studies are required to compare the efficacy of the various treatment modalities.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
Pre- and perinatal adversities may increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hypoxia-related obstetric complications (OCs) are associated with brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their association with brain anatomy variation in bipolar disorder is unknown.
Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, clinical examinations and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were obtained for 219 adults, including 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder (age 29.4 years, s.d. = 11.8 years, 39% male) and 140 healthy controls (age 30.8 years, s.d. = 12.0 years, 53% male). Severe hypoxia-related OCs throughout pregnancy/birth and perinatal asphyxia were each studied in relation to a priori selected brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricles and amygdala, obtained with FreeSurfer), using linear regression models covarying for age, sex, medication use and intracranial volume. Multiple comparison adjustment was applied.
Perinatal asphyxia was associated with smaller left amygdala volume (t = −2.59, p = 0.012) in bipolar disorder patients, but not in healthy controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed distinct associations between perinatal asphyxia and smaller left amygdala volume (t = −2.69, p = 0.010), whereas patients with non-psychotic bipolar disorder showed smaller right hippocampal volumes related to both perinatal asphyxia (t = −2.60, p = 0.015) and severe OCs (t = −3.25, p = 0.003). No associations between asphyxia or severe OCs and the lateral ventricles were found.
Pre- and perinatal hypoxia-related OCs are related to brain morphometry in bipolar disorder in adulthood, with specific patterns in patients with psychotic versus non-psychotic illness.
To report a rare case of a symptomatic malleo-incudal osteoma, and to highlight the difficulties in making the clinical diagnosis.
Case report and literature review.
Malleo-incudal osteoma is a rare cause of unilateral conductive hearing loss. Its symptoms may mimic those of other otological causes of conductive hearing loss, such as otosclerosis.
This case report highlights the challenges involved in establishing a clinical diagnosis of malleo-incudal osteoma. It also emphasises the importance of assessing the mobility of the divided ossicular chain during a planned stapedectomy.
To report a rare case of tuberculous otitis media, and to highlight barriers to clinical and microbiological diagnosis.
Case report and literature review.
Tuberculous otitis media is a rare cause of chronic ear infection in the UK. Its symptoms may mimic a range of other otological conditions, including otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media, cholesteatoma and necrotising otitis media.
This case report highlights the challenges of obtaining a clinical diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media, and emphasises the fact that screening for acid-fast bacilli is not sufficient, in isolation, to rule out mycobacterial infection.
This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing as a screening tool for hearing loss in children, after grommet insertion.
A prospective study was conducted of 48 children (91 ears) aged three to 16 years who had undergone grommet insertion for glue ear. At post-operative review, pure tone audiometry was performed followed by transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing. Outcomes for both tests, in each ear, were compared.
The pure tone audiometry threshold was ≤20 dB in 85 ears (93.4 per cent), 25 dB in two ears (2.2 per cent) and ≥30 dB in four ears (4.4 per cent). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions were detected in 69 ears (75.8 per cent). The sensitivity of transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing for detecting hearing loss was 100 per cent for ≥30 dB loss but only 66.7 per cent for ≥25 dB loss.
Transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing offers a sensitive means of detecting hearing loss of ≥30 dB following grommet insertion in children. However, the use of such testing as a screening tool may miss some cases of mild hearing loss.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux is commonly encountered in the ENT out-patient setting. It leads to impaired sensory capacity of the laryngeal mucosa. The sensory integrity of the laryngopharynx can be evaluated through endoscopic administration of pulsed air, which stimulates the laryngeal adductor reflex. The pressure of air needed to elicit this reflex indicates the degree of sensory impairment. Such laryngeal sensory testing gives a quantifiable means of assessment in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux, and can be used to measure the response to treatment. Laryngeal sensory testing is safe and well tolerated by patients.