Two-hundred and fifty-one children (98 girls and 153 boys, aged from 3 to 17 years) with documented diagnosis of epileptic syndrome, IQ measurement, and information on school placement were included in this retrospective study. The relations between these three parameters as well as effects of age at onset and duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were analysed. Both IQ and schooling were univariately related to epileptic syndrome, age at onset and duration of epilepsy, and number of AEDs; seizure frequency was related to IQ but not to school placement. Multiple regression showed that IQ was independently related to epileptic syndrome and AED; multiple logistic regression showed that type of school (mainstream versus adapted or special) was independently related to IQ and AED. Children with idiopathic generalised or with localisation-related epilepsy had higher IQ scores and higher probability of mainstream schooling than those with symptomatic or cryptogenic generalised epilepsies or epileptic syndromes which were undetermined. Subtests profile of intelligence scale in localisation-related epilepsies showed different specific cognitive deficits, according to the location of the epileptic focus.