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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neck dissection on survival and complication rates in patients with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical nodal disease (N0) undergoing salvage laryngectomy.
A retrospective study was conducted of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx following primary radiotherapy that required salvage laryngectomy. Disease-free and overall survival rates were compared over three years using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Pharyngocutaneous fistula rate, hospitalisation length and the requirement for further surgical intervention were also compared across cohorts.
Twenty-three cases met the inclusion criteria (17 neck dissections, 6 undissected). No significant differences in survival outcomes were identified. One patient who underwent neck dissection for advanced, recurrent transglottic squamous cell carcinoma showed evidence of occult lymph node metastases. Fistula rates did not differ significantly between dissected and non-dissected groups; however, two patients required surgical repair of post-operative pharyngocutaneous fistula following neck dissection.
In this study, elective neck dissection did not appear to alter survival outcomes or complication rates during salvage laryngectomy. Given the small but significant risk of occult neck metastases, its true value remains unclear.
This study investigated long-term survival outcomes in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients with known human papilloma virus status.
A case note review was performed of all patients undergoing primary surgery for oropharyngeal cancer in a single centre over a 10-year period. Human papilloma virus status was determined via dual modality testing. Associations between clinicopathological variables and survival were identified using a log-rank test.
Of the 107 cases in the study, 40 per cent (n = 41) were human papilloma virus positive. The positive and negative predictive values of p16 immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus status were 57 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. At a mean follow up of 59.5 months, 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 78 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively. Human papilloma virus status (p = 0.014), smoking status (p = 0.021) and tumour stage (p = 0.03) were significant prognostic indicators.
The long-term survival rates in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients were comparable to other studies. Variables including human papilloma virus status and tumour stage were associated with survival in patients treated with primary surgery; however, nodal stage and presence of extracapsular spread were non-prognostic.
Environmental health assessments of disaster shelters are critical for monitoring the living conditions of the occupants. However, knowledge and levels of utilization of these assessments have never been estimated in the United States or its territories. We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey to ascertain knowledge and Utilization of environmental health disaster shelter assessments.
The State and Territorial Use of Shelter Assessments Survey (STUSA) of environmental health department directors (N=56) was carried out in 2013.
Survey responses were received from 55 of 56 targeted jurisdictions. Of those respondents, 92% of state jurisdictions and 100% of territories reported having knowledge about shelter assessments. However, only 40% of states and 60% of territories reported receiving formal training, and 53% of states and 50% of territories reported having operational procedures for shelter assessments. High levels of knowledge and familiarity and low levels of training and processes for operationalizing assessments were assessed.
Because environmental health assessments may provide useful information in disaster settings, we need to understand the barriers to their implementation. The results of these assessments may also help to validate their usefulness in protecting shelter occupants during disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:11–14)
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been associated with the use of catecholamines; however, its development after the use of nebulised adrenaline for the management of acute airway obstruction has not previously been described.
A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, with tumour–node–metastasis staging of T3N2cM0, confirmed by biopsy and computed tomography, presented to the emergency department with acute airway obstruction. He was treated twice with nebulised adrenaline and intravenous dexamethasone. After a period of 24 hours, cardiac rhythm changes were noted on telemetry. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed widespread T-wave inversion and QT prolongation suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography demonstrated no coronary artery disease, but left ventricular angiography showed marked apical ballooning and apical wall akinesia consistent with a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can mimic true ischaemic heart disease and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion in patients managed with nebulised adrenaline.
A systematic review was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different therapeutic interventions available for the management of isolated cricopharyngeal dysfunction.
Studies were identified using the following databases: Ovid (Medline, Embase), the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Google Scholar. An initial search identified 339 articles. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. Fifty-six relevant articles were inspected in more detail; of these, 47 were included in the qualitative analysis.
No relevant randomised trials were found. A range of case series were used to perform a qualitative analysis. Botulinum toxin A injection and cricopharyngeal dilatation were associated with a higher risk of recurrence, but appear to be more suitable in elderly and co-morbid patients. In those patients requiring formal myotomy, endoscopic approaches appear to be as effective but less morbid when compared with classical open surgery.
There is good evidence for the safety and efficacy of the different therapeutic options for isolated cricopharyngeal dysfunction. However, further studies are required to compare the efficacy of the various treatment modalities.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show structural brain abnormalities. Whether the changes are progressive or not remain under debate, and the results from longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are mixed. We investigated if FEP patients showed a different pattern of regional brain structural change over a 1-year period compared with healthy controls, and if putative changes correlated with clinical characteristics and outcome.
MRIs of 79 FEP patients [SCID-I-verified diagnoses: schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder, or other psychoses, mean age 27.6 (s.d. = 7.7) years, 66% male] and 82 healthy controls [age 29.3 (s.d. = 7.2) years, 66% male] were acquired from the same 1.5 T scanner at baseline and 1-year follow-up as part of the Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) study, Oslo, Norway. Scans were automatically processed with the longitudinal stream in FreeSurfer that creates an unbiased within-subject template image. General linear models were used to analyse longitudinal change in a wide range of subcortical volumes and detailed thickness and surface area estimates across the entire cortex, and associations with clinical characteristics.
FEP patients and controls did not differ significantly in annual percentage change in cortical thickness or area in any cortical region, or in any of the subcortical structures after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Within the FEP group, duration of untreated psychosis, age at illness onset, antipsychotic medication use and remission at follow-up were not related to longitudinal brain change.
We found no significant longitudinal brain changes over a 1-year period in FEP patients. Our results do not support early progressive brain changes in psychotic disorders.
Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects 6–10% of women in their reproductive years and 20–50% of women with infertility. Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies for endometriosis have identified 10 independent risk loci, and of these, nine (rs7521902, rs13394619, rs4141819, rs6542095, rs1519761, rs7739264, rs12700667, rs1537377, and rs10859871) are polymorphic in European populations. Here we investigate the replication of nine SNP loci in 998 laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis cases and 783 disease-free controls from Belgium. SNPs rs7521902, rs13394619, and rs6542095 show nominally significant (p < .05) associations with endometriosis, while the directions of effect for seven SNPs are consistent with the original reports. Association of rs6542095 at the IL1A locus with ‘All’ (p = .066) and ‘Grade_B’ (p = .01) endometriosis is noteworthy because this is the first successful replication in an independent population. Meta-analysis with the published results yields genome-wide significant evidence for rs7521902, rs13394619, rs6542095, rs12700667, rs7739264, and rs1537377. Notably, three coding variants in GREB1 (near rs13394619) and CDKN2B-AS1 (near rs1537377) also showed nominally significant associations with endometriosis. Overall, this study provides important replication in a uniquely characterized independent population, and indicates that the majority of the original genome-wide association findings are not due to chance alone.
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
Pre- and perinatal adversities may increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hypoxia-related obstetric complications (OCs) are associated with brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their association with brain anatomy variation in bipolar disorder is unknown.
Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, clinical examinations and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were obtained for 219 adults, including 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder (age 29.4 years, s.d. = 11.8 years, 39% male) and 140 healthy controls (age 30.8 years, s.d. = 12.0 years, 53% male). Severe hypoxia-related OCs throughout pregnancy/birth and perinatal asphyxia were each studied in relation to a priori selected brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricles and amygdala, obtained with FreeSurfer), using linear regression models covarying for age, sex, medication use and intracranial volume. Multiple comparison adjustment was applied.
Perinatal asphyxia was associated with smaller left amygdala volume (t = −2.59, p = 0.012) in bipolar disorder patients, but not in healthy controls. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed distinct associations between perinatal asphyxia and smaller left amygdala volume (t = −2.69, p = 0.010), whereas patients with non-psychotic bipolar disorder showed smaller right hippocampal volumes related to both perinatal asphyxia (t = −2.60, p = 0.015) and severe OCs (t = −3.25, p = 0.003). No associations between asphyxia or severe OCs and the lateral ventricles were found.
Pre- and perinatal hypoxia-related OCs are related to brain morphometry in bipolar disorder in adulthood, with specific patterns in patients with psychotic versus non-psychotic illness.
We report a rare case of epistaxis resulting from a ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm, and present a successful treatment method.
A 72-year-old woman was admitted following recurrent massive epistaxis. There was no history of trauma or surgery. Radiographic imaging demonstrated a large internal carotid artery aneurysm. An attempt was made to occlude the aneurysm with endovascular coils. Despite this, the patient went on to have further epistaxis. Endovascular ablation of the feeding internal carotid artery led to complete resolution.
This case demonstrates that spontaneous epistaxis from intra-cavernous carotid artery aneurysms can be managed using endovascular techniques. To our knowledge, we report the first use of interventional radiological techniques to assess the collateral circulation to the brain and subsequently undertake endovascular ablation of the internal carotid artery.
To report a rare case of a symptomatic malleo-incudal osteoma, and to highlight the difficulties in making the clinical diagnosis.
Case report and literature review.
Malleo-incudal osteoma is a rare cause of unilateral conductive hearing loss. Its symptoms may mimic those of other otological causes of conductive hearing loss, such as otosclerosis.
This case report highlights the challenges involved in establishing a clinical diagnosis of malleo-incudal osteoma. It also emphasises the importance of assessing the mobility of the divided ossicular chain during a planned stapedectomy.
To report a rare case of tuberculous otitis media, and to highlight barriers to clinical and microbiological diagnosis.
Case report and literature review.
Tuberculous otitis media is a rare cause of chronic ear infection in the UK. Its symptoms may mimic a range of other otological conditions, including otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media, cholesteatoma and necrotising otitis media.
This case report highlights the challenges of obtaining a clinical diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media, and emphasises the fact that screening for acid-fast bacilli is not sufficient, in isolation, to rule out mycobacterial infection.
This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing as a screening tool for hearing loss in children, after grommet insertion.
A prospective study was conducted of 48 children (91 ears) aged three to 16 years who had undergone grommet insertion for glue ear. At post-operative review, pure tone audiometry was performed followed by transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing. Outcomes for both tests, in each ear, were compared.
The pure tone audiometry threshold was ≤20 dB in 85 ears (93.4 per cent), 25 dB in two ears (2.2 per cent) and ≥30 dB in four ears (4.4 per cent). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions were detected in 69 ears (75.8 per cent). The sensitivity of transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing for detecting hearing loss was 100 per cent for ≥30 dB loss but only 66.7 per cent for ≥25 dB loss.
Transient evoked otoacoustic emission testing offers a sensitive means of detecting hearing loss of ≥30 dB following grommet insertion in children. However, the use of such testing as a screening tool may miss some cases of mild hearing loss.
We present photometry and spectroscopy of the peculiar Type II supernova SN 2010jp, also named PTF10aaxi. The light curve exhibits a linear decline with a relatively low peak absolute magnitude of only −15.9 (unfiltered), and a low radioactive decay luminosity at late times that suggests a low synthesized nickel mass of about 0.003 M⊙ or less. Spectra of SN 2010jp display an unprecedented triple-peaked Hα line profile, showing: (1) a narrow central component that suggests shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM); (2) high-velocity blue and red emission features centered at −12,600 and +15,400 km s−1; and (3) very broad wings extending from −22,000 to +25,000 km s−1. We propose that this line profile indicates a bipolar jet-driven explosion, with the central component produced by normal SN ejecta and CSM interaction at mid and low latitudes, while the high-velocity bumps and broad line wings arise in a nonrelativistic bipolar jet. Jet-driven SNe II are predicted for collapsars resulting from a wide range of initial masses above 25 M⊙, especially at the sub-solar metallicity consistent with the SN host environment. It also seems consistent with the apparently low 56Ni mass that may accompany black hole formation. We speculate that the jet survives to produce observable signatures because the star's H envelope was very low mass, having been mostly stripped away by the previous eruptive mass loss.
Dislocation pileups with abnormally weak inter-dislocation repulsion have been observed in locally oxidized silicon structures. To verify if this could be attributed to elastic interaction of dislocations with intrinsic point defects, distributions of self-interstitials in dislocation stress fields have been studied using theoretical calculations and computer simulations. According to the obtained results, self-interstitials can form atmospheres about dislocations causing dislocation stress reduction and therefore screening of dislocations from interaction with external stresses. This may represent an additional mechanism of dislocation locking in silicon alternative to oxygen pinning.
Scanning electron microscopy with simultaneous energy dispersive x-ray analysis was used to characterize microdots to assess their suitability for the identification and trackingof artifacts. They were found comparable to commercial state-of-theart microfilm and microfiche which are known to be durable for about 20 years without postprocessing treatment to stabilize them.