We demonstrate the detection of an increase in refractive index and/or thickness by specific adsorption of proteins on a plasmonic surface on a paper substrate in the Otto configuration. Propagating surface plasmon resonance is observed on a gold surface deposited onto polymer-coated papers through angular scans of reflectivity in the Otto configuration under attenuated total reflection conditions. According to a surface analysis with atomic force microscope, the gold surface roughness on a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated paper is comparable to that of a Si wafer, leading to the achievement of protein detection. On the other hand, the propagating length of the surface plasmons is shorter than that on the Si wafer. According to an observation of the gold surface with scanning electron microscope, the gold grain size on the PVC-coated paper is smaller than that on the Si wafer. Thus, many boundaries cause a reduction in the propagating length on the PVC-coated paper.