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The efficacy of the unified protocol of the transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders (UP) has been poorly studied in patients with depressive disorders. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of UP for improving depressive symptoms in patients with depressive and/or anxiety-related disorders.
This assessor-blinded, randomized, 20-week, parallel-group, superiority study compared the efficacy of the UP with treatment-as-usual (UP-TAU) v. wait-list with treatment-as-usual (WL-TAU). Patients diagnosed with depressive and/or anxiety disorders and with depressive symptoms participated. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms assessed by GRID-Hamilton depression rating scale (GRID-HAMD) at 21 weeks. The secondary outcomes included assessor-rated anxiety symptoms, severity and improvement of clinical global impression, responder and remission status, and loss of principal diagnosis.
In total, 104 patients participated and were subjected to intention-to-treat analysis [mean age = 37.4, s.d. = 11.5, 63 female (61%), 54 (51.9%) with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorders]. The mean GRID-HAMD scores in the UP-TAU and WL-TAU groups were 16.15 (s.d. = 4.90) and 17.06 (s.d. = 6.46) at baseline and 12.14 (s.d. = 5.47) and 17.34 (s.d. = 5.78) at 21 weeks, with a significant adjusted mean change difference of −3.99 (95% CI −6.10 to −1.87). Patients in the UP-TAU group showed significant superiority in anxiety and clinical global impressions. The improvement in the UP-TAU group was maintained in all outcomes at 43 weeks. No serious adverse events were observed in the UP-TAU group.
The UP is an effective approach for patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.
The starfish is an advantageous organism in which to investigate developmental modes. It is widely known that maternal substances accumulated in the course of oogenesis affect various developmental phenomena. Vitellogen is the most abundant maternal substance in the egg and has been studied in various species including sea urchins. Vitellogen and the vitellogenin gene have been analysed with regard to their relevance to developmental modes in two Heliocidaris species (Byrne et al., 1999) and Japanese sea urchins (Yokota & Amemiya, 1998). In starfish, however, relatively little is known about the yolk and yolk protein.
The Keio Twin Research Center has conducted two longitudinal twin cohort projects and has collected three independent and anonymous twin data sets for studies of phenotypes related to psychological, socio-economic, and mental health factors. The Keio Twin Study has examined adolescent and adult cohorts, with a total of over 2,400 pairs of twins and their parents. DNA samples are available for approximately 600 of these twin pairs. The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project has followed a total of 1,600 twin pairs from infancy to early childhood. The large-scale cross-sectional twin study (CROSS) has collected data from over 4,000 twin pairs, from 3 to 26 years of age, and from two high school twin cohorts containing a total of 1,000 pairs of twins. These data sets of anonymous twin studies have mainly targeted academic performance, attitude, and social environment. The present article introduces the research designs and major findings of our center, such as genetic structures of cognitive abilities, personality traits, and academic performances, developmental effects of genes and environment on attitude, socio-cognitive ability and parenting, genes x environment interaction on attitude and conduct problem, and statistical methodological challenges and so on. We discuss the challenges in conducting twin research in Japan.
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of birth-weight discordance among twins, to determine the risk cut-off point for birthweight discordance, and to clarify whether perinatal deaths are aggravated by birthweight discordance or by low birthweight itself. A population-based analysis of all twins born between 1995 and 1999 in Japan was conducted using data collected from national birth, death and stillbirth certificates. Birthweight discordance was determined as: higher birthweight minus lower birthweight divided by higher birthweight multiplied by 100. Among twins with a birthweight discordance of more than 15%, the fetal and perinatal mortality rate was higher than that of twins with a discordance of less than 15%. Ninety per cent of the relative cumulative frequency of twin live-births were within 25% of the birthweight discordance. Logistic regression analysis showed that the stillbirth of at least one of the twins is associated with the birthweight of the larger twin and birthweight discordance. It also showed that the stillbirth of both twins in the twin pair is associated with the birth-weight of larger twins and the gestational weeks. It was clarified that birthweight discordance was associated with the stillbirth of only one twin in the twin pair, and the stillbirth of both twins in the twin pair was associated with low birthweight itself.
The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) is a large-scale longitudinal study of 5 years based on 1619 pairs of infant twins reared together. The purpose of the study is to construct a population-based twin registry in Japan and to investigate human growth and development and twin themselves. It covers behavioral, neurological, physical and environmental variables measured by questionnaire, home visiting and brain imaging technology. The full registry contains over 47,000 multiple births collected from the Basic Resident Register, and the targeted population is 3070 probable twins of 0 to 2 years old. Preliminary analysis of the entry questionnaire data showed no serious sampling biases. Descriptive statistics of parental characteristics (parental age, gestation age, parity and placentation, maternal weight, parenting stress) and children's characteristics (body size at birth, 4 and 10 months of age, milk consumption, and sleeping and social behavior) and their correlations, genetic and environmental contributions and correlations are reported.
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