Recently, countries at high latitudes have updated their vitamin D recommendations to ensure adequate intake for the musculoskeletal health of their respective populations. In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1–70 years increased from 5 μg/d to 15 μg/d, whereas in 2016 for citizens of the UK aged ≥4 years 10 μg/d is recommended. The vitamin D status of Canadian children following the revised dietary guidelines is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children. For this study, we assumed serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 nmol/l as ‘deficient’ and ≥50nmol/l as ‘sufficient’. Data from children aged 3–18 years (n 2270) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey were analysed. Of all children, 5·6 % were vitamin D deficient and 71 % were vitamin D sufficient. Children who consumed vitamin D-fortified milk daily (77 %) were more likely to be sufficient than those who consumed it less frequently (OR 2·7; 95 % CI 1·4, 5·0). The 9 % of children who reported taking vitamin D-containing supplements in the previous month had higher 25(OH)D concentrations (OR 6·9 nmol/l; 95 % CI 1·1, 12·7 nmol/l) relative to those who did not. Children who were older, obese, of non-white ethnicity and from low-income households were less likely to be vitamin D sufficient. To improve vitamin D status, consumption of vitamin D-rich foods should be promoted, and fortification of more food items or formal recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should be considered.