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Feasibility of multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy was studied as a potential
in-line monitoring technique for grain size distribution in channel poly-Si used
in three dimensional stacked NAND (3D NAND) Flash memory devices. Various
channel poly-Si materials in 3D-NAND Flash memory devices, converted from
chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown a-Si, were characterized using
non-contact, multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy and high resolution
cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM). The Raman
characterization results were compared with HRXTEM images. The correlation
between the grain size distribution characterized by multiwavelength Raman
spectroscopy and “on current” (ION) of 3D NAND
Flash memory devices was investigated. Good correlation between these techniques
was seen. Multiwavelength Raman spectroscopy is very promising as a
non-destructive in-line monitoring technique for grain size distribution in
channel poly-Si used in 3D NAND Flash memory devices.
A gradual change in thermal oxide surface state from hydrophilic to
hydrophobic was observed with time -delay in a clean room environment.
Surface quality and reflectivity for the Al/Ti metal layers showed a strong
dependency on the oxide surface state. From the hydrophilic oxide substrate,
a lower (002) Ti preferred orientation was obtained than from hydrophobic
ones. This resulted in a degraded (111) Al preferred orientation and rough
metal surface. The RF-etch process increased the smoothness and hydrophobic
surface property for the inter -metal dielectric (IMD) oxides, and therefore
greatly improved Al/Ti surface quality. When conventional CMOS double layer
metal interconnection process is performed, metal inter-line bridge yield
was strongly affected by the surface state of substrate oxides.
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