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Learning sciences researchers study different types of collaboration, study it for different reasons, and use a variety of methods. Many of these methods focus on talk and interaction patterns, often using a methodology called interaction analysis that builds on linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. This chapter reviews four broad approaches: collaboration as a window onto individual learning; collaboration as a way to study how to help students learn better; collaboration as a way to study how collaboration changes during learning; and collaboration itself as a form of learning. These approaches differ along four dimensions: the unit of analysis for describing collaborative processes; the unit of analysis for documenting learning outcomes; the degree to which those learning outcomes are identified within the collaboration or outside the collaboration; and the degree to which the researcher considers some forms of collaboration to be more effective.