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Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1–100 μg/ml). In a leucocyte adhesion model of inflammation, it also significantly decreased LPS-induced adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1) to the HUVEC, as well as reduced the expression of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in the target cells. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in a LPS-induced endotoxaemia rat model. Oral administration of the amla fruit extract (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum. These results suggest that amla fruit extract may be an effective anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent.
We review the results of very early phase optical follow-up observations of recent gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the multi-color optical telescopes “MITSuME”. The MITSuME telescopes were designed to perform “real time” and “automatic” follow-up observations prompted by the GCN alerts via the Internet. The rapidly slewing equatorial mounts allow MITSuME to start photometric observations within 100 seconds after the trigger for several GRBs. In particular, we detected a brightening just after the trigger for two GRBs. These phenomena could be interpreted as the “on-set” of afterglow. In this paper we summarize these optical observations with a brief interpretation.
Hard X-ray polarization is believed to be one of the most promising methods to investigate the physical processes just around the central engines by constraining the magnetic environment. For this purpose we are now developing a compact and highly sensitive hard X-ray polarimeter aboard a university class micro-satellite “TSUBAME”. We are now developing the flight model of the satellite aiming for the launch in late 2012 from Russia.
Ion beai induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) in preaiorphized BP(100) has been investigated by RBS channeling experiients. Re-crystallization was induced by subsequent ion boibardients with 400 keV Kr, 400 keV Ar and 800 keV Ar at temperature range between 200°C and 450°C. The current densities of Kr and Ar ions were selected to give the saie energy deposition rate in the elastic collision process. Epitaxial crytallization was observed at teiperatures luch below those required for the therial solid phase epitaxy (SPE) process (above 800°C). The critical temperature for crystallization at typical current densities was 230°C. The ion species used for the preaiorphization give a weak influence on the regrowth rate. On the scale of deposited energy density in the elastic collisions, ion boibardients with higher electronic excitation efficiency were found to be effective in the regrowth process. Dose rate is found to be of iiportance in the regrowth process. The activation energy observed in Ar ion boibardients was 0.18±0.05 eV.
Fabrication of Si1-xGex and Si-1-x-yGexCy layers on Si(100) by high-dose ion implantation of 72Ge ions without and with 12C ions and subsequent high-energy and low-energy ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) has been investigated. Structural properties of the surface layers were observed by RBS-channeling technique. Si(100) wafers were implanted with 150keV and 80keV Ge ions at room temperature so as to produce a peak concentration of Ge amounting to approximately 2 and 14 at.%, respectively. C ions were additionally implanted to a fluence of 10% of Ge concentration for the SiGeC samples. IBΓEC experiments performed with 400keV 18Ar ion bombardments have induced crystallization of the amorphous layers of SiGe and SiGeC on Si up to the surface at 400°C for both samples with low Ge concentration (2%) and high Ge concentration (14%). IBIEC using 72Ge ions with energies whose projected ranges are within the amorphous layer was alternatively performed for SiGe layer on Si. Bombardments of 140keV and 40keV Ge ions at 400°C have induced crystallization up to the surface with a slight disorder in the grown layer. Present experimental results suggest a novel ion beam synthesis method of fabrication of SiGe (SiGeC) on Si at low temperatures.
Polycrystalline diamond films, single crystal bulk diamonds, and diamond powder were treated in microwave plasma of hydrogen at 1.6 torr under a negative direct-current bias of −150 to −300 V without metal catalyst. It was found that fibrous structures, uniformly elongated along the direction normal to the specimen surface, were formed on the diamond surfaces. Similar experiments for glasslike carbon resulted in conical structures with frizzy fibers at the tops. Transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the fibers formed on diamond consisted of randomly oriented diamond nanocrystals with diameters of less than 10 nm, while the conical structures formed on glasslike carbon consisted of graphite nanocrystals. Field emission measurements of the fibrous specimens exhibited better emission efficiency than untreated ones. The field emission electron microscopy of the fibrous glasslike carbon showed a presence of discrete electron emission sites at a density of approximately 10,000 sites/cm2.
We carried out a computerised tomographic (CT) examination to elucidate
the modifications in the head
related to orbital enlargement in the Baikal seal. Transverse CT images
showed that (1) the external frontal
contours and the frontal sinuses are compressed medially and ventrally
by the orbital enlargement; (2) the
caudal part of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx are compacted ventrally;
and (3) the cranial cavity is
displaced caudally. The neurocranium is obviously separated from the facial
part in the transverse plane at
the caudal region of the orbit. The disposition of the mandible, zygomatic
arch, temporal bone, and the
masseter, temporal, digastric and pterygoid muscles is changed by the enlarged
orbit in the 3-dimensional
reorganisation of the head in this species. It is suggested that adaptation
for the Lake Baikal environment
primarily resulted in orbital enlargement, and that the altered orbital
design may subsequently have
influenced the form and function of the masticatory and respiratory system.
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