Recent studies on the rehabilitation of children with hydrocephalus have demonstrated the need for those planning such rehabilitation programmes to have a clear understanding of the neuropsychological and psychosocial aspects of this disorder. In an attempt to provide such information, the neuropsychological and psychosocial functioning of a group of 17 children with hydrocephalus between the ages of eight and fourteen years old was investigated. Performance by the sample with hydrocephalus was compared to that of a ‘normal’ control sample. Participants with hydrocephalus and control participants were matched on the variables of sex, age, years of education, and socio-economic status. Relative to control participants, the participants with hydrocephalus were impaired on measures of intellectual, attention, verbal and visual memory, and visuo-spatial abilities. Language alone was relatively preserved. The children with hydrocephalus also exhibited poorer self-esteem, fewer adaptive competencies, and more problem behaviours than the ‘normal’ controls. For the children with hydrocephalus, the relationship between their impaired intellectual abilities and their psychosocial functioning was investigated.