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The current status of laboratory measurements of the rate coefficients for ionic reactions involved in interstellar molecular synthesis is discussed and the experimental techniques used to acquire such data are briefly described. Examples are given of laboratory data which are being obtained at temperatures close to those of interstellar clouds. Particular attention is given to the results of recent theoretical and experimental work which show that the rate coefficients for the binary reactions of ions with polar molecules at low temperatures are much larger than previously assumed. It is shown how these new developments in experiment and theory are reconciling the differences between predicted and observed abundances for some interstellar molecules. Also briefly discussed are: - the phenomenon of isotope exchange in ion/neutral reactions which explains the apparent enrichment of heavy isotopes in some interstellar molecules, the role of atoms in molecular synthesis, some studies of ion/neutral reactions pertaining to shocked regions of interstellar clouds, ternary association reactions and the analogous radiative association reactions, and recent new laboratory measurements of dissociative recombination coefficients. Finally, some guidance is offered in the proper choice of critical kinetic data for use in interstellar chemical modelling and some further requirements and likely future developments are mentioned.
Several experimental approaches are being utilised for the direct detection of the hypothetical weakly interacting massive particle which may constitute the majority of the non-luminous component of the Galaxy. These experimental techniques exploit the coherent recoil of target nuclei during an interaction and include thermal, ionisation, scintillation and tracking detectors. The challenges associated with this detection, the techniques employed and the current status of these searches are reviewed.
That English literature is suffused with religion is news to no one; the English language is throughout history part of the structure of the Church or churches. But there is a way in which Church history and English literature have been missing each other for a good many years. This is in part because, until recently, religion in literature has been the preserve of relatively small groups of enthusiasts with partisan views. Their work has appeared unattractive or irrelevant to a largely secular mainstream that has been preoccupied with the ‘political’ (as opposed to the religious) in early modern literary studies (this is especially so with regard to the drama). But we now have an account of Church history that is more sophisticated and variegated, more attuned to confessional variety and its politics, local and national. This is crying out for engagement with literary studies in ways that literary scholars would find compelling, not least in offering many solutions to the kinds of questions they have come to ask. To some extent the dialogue has already begun, and indeed several exemplary studies are cited in what follows. Nonetheless, we are at the beginning of what may well be a long and extremely fruitful interdisciplinary encounter.
From our laboratory data relating to several hundreds of ion-atom and ion-molecule reactions at thermal energies, we qualitatively describe probable chemical paths to the synthesis of amino-, cyano-and nitroso-compounds in interstellar clouds.
The radiative association rate coefficients and their temperature dependences have been estimated for several likely interstellar ion-molecule reactions from laboratory collisional association rate data. They include the CH3+ + H2 and CH3+ + H2O reactions, which we suggest lead to CH4 and CH3OH respectively, and the critical association reaction C+ + H2.
This study explored which of social dominance, social identity and perceptions of organisational justice were most predictive of self-reported empowerment among aid workers in the Philippines (N = 98). Responses to an online survey available in English and Tagalog were obtained from employees of diverse locally operating aid organisations in the Philippines. The survey included composite measures of empowerment, perceived social dominance, social identity and organisational justice. All measures except perceived social dominance performed as theorised in the Philippine context of this study. The best predictor of empowerment was the aspect of organisational justice centering on the fairness of personal interactions (interactional justice; β = .331). An interaction effect between interactional justice and aspects of empowerment and social (Filipino) identity was also observed (β = .233), implying that a secure Filipino identity may act as a buffer to consequences of injustice, all other things being equal. The overall pattern of results suggests that justice plays a more significant role than either social dominance or identity in contributing to empowerment amongst Filipino aid employees. Strikingly, interactional justice may matter more than distributive justice.
The antimalarial drug artemisinin (ART) is commercially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Here, we report the screening of 70 A. annua plants representing 14 diverse germplasm accessions sourced from around the world, and identify lines containing >2% ART. These extremely high-yielding individuals have been maintained as vegetative clones, and they represent promising germplasm resources for future A. annua breeding programmes.
Extreme impacts can result from extreme weather and climate events, but can also occur without extreme events. This chapter examines two broad categories of impacts on human and ecological systems, both of which are influenced by changes in climate, vulnerability, and exposure: first, the chapter primarily focuses on impacts that result from extreme weather and climate events, and second, it also considers extreme impacts that are triggered by less-than-extreme weather or climate events. These two categories of impacts are examined across sectors, systems, and regions. Extreme events can have positive as well as negative impacts on ecosystems and human activities.
Economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters have increased, but with large spatial and interannual variability (high confidence, based on high agreement, medium evidence). Global weather- and climate-related disaster losses reported over the last few decades reflect mainly monetized direct damages to assets, and are unequally distributed. Estimates of annual losses have ranged since 1980 from a few US$ billion to above 200 billion (in 2010 dollars), with the highest value for 2005 (the year of Hurricane Katrina). In the period 2000 to 2008, Asia experienced the highest number of weather- and climate-related disasters. The Americas suffered the most economic loss, accounting for the highest proportion (54.6%) of total loss, followed by Asia (27.5%) and Europe (15.9%). Africa accounted for only 0.6% of global economic losses. Loss estimates are lower bound estimates because many impacts, such as loss of human lives, cultural heritage, and ecosystem services, are difficult to value and monetize, and thus they are poorly reflected in estimates of losses. [4.5.1, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206]