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The lawyer of the future will exist as a ‘polytechnic’ or ‘many-skilled’ professional, applying their legal expertise to a client’s changing world in an increasingly agile way and within a range of organisational settings. For legal educators, there is a need to consider how education can best prepare future lawyers for this reality. The long view suggests that we should be looking to build core skills in legal, design and logic principles rather than learning specific technologies that may be rapidly superseded. But how can we develop these skills, and how we can balance the need to understand core academic principles of law against the need for applied, workplace experience? This chapter looks at the balancing process, focusing on the impact of changing roles in law firms and the demands of the in-house legal and law-advisory-organisation dynamic. It examines how legal education can instil within lawyers, both an understanding of the principles of law alongside an appreciation of the application of those principles in the workplace. It presents a vision of the roles and specialisations that are likely to emerge within the profession, and considers how the future work of lawyers will sit alongside alternative paths into the legal industry.
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.
This study explored which of social dominance, social identity and perceptions of organisational justice were most predictive of self-reported empowerment among aid workers in the Philippines (N = 98). Responses to an online survey available in English and Tagalog were obtained from employees of diverse locally operating aid organisations in the Philippines. The survey included composite measures of empowerment, perceived social dominance, social identity and organisational justice. All measures except perceived social dominance performed as theorised in the Philippine context of this study. The best predictor of empowerment was the aspect of organisational justice centering on the fairness of personal interactions (interactional justice; β = .331). An interaction effect between interactional justice and aspects of empowerment and social (Filipino) identity was also observed (β = .233), implying that a secure Filipino identity may act as a buffer to consequences of injustice, all other things being equal. The overall pattern of results suggests that justice plays a more significant role than either social dominance or identity in contributing to empowerment amongst Filipino aid employees. Strikingly, interactional justice may matter more than distributive justice.
The antimalarial drug artemisinin (ART) is commercially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Here, we report the screening of 70 A. annua plants representing 14 diverse germplasm accessions sourced from around the world, and identify lines containing >2% ART. These extremely high-yielding individuals have been maintained as vegetative clones, and they represent promising germplasm resources for future A. annua breeding programmes.
Extreme impacts can result from extreme weather and climate events, but can also occur without extreme events. This chapter examines two broad categories of impacts on human and ecological systems, both of which are influenced by changes in climate, vulnerability, and exposure: first, the chapter primarily focuses on impacts that result from extreme weather and climate events, and second, it also considers extreme impacts that are triggered by less-than-extreme weather or climate events. These two categories of impacts are examined across sectors, systems, and regions. Extreme events can have positive as well as negative impacts on ecosystems and human activities.
Economic losses from weather- and climate-related disasters have increased, but with large spatial and interannual variability (high confidence, based on high agreement, medium evidence). Global weather- and climate-related disaster losses reported over the last few decades reflect mainly monetized direct damages to assets, and are unequally distributed. Estimates of annual losses have ranged since 1980 from a few US$ billion to above 200 billion (in 2010 dollars), with the highest value for 2005 (the year of Hurricane Katrina). In the period 2000 to 2008, Asia experienced the highest number of weather- and climate-related disasters. The Americas suffered the most economic loss, accounting for the highest proportion (54.6%) of total loss, followed by Asia (27.5%) and Europe (15.9%). Africa accounted for only 0.6% of global economic losses. Loss estimates are lower bound estimates because many impacts, such as loss of human lives, cultural heritage, and ecosystem services, are difficult to value and monetize, and thus they are poorly reflected in estimates of losses. [4.5.1, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124]
In 1673, the satirist Samuel Butler represented the poet, politician and prose controversialist Andrew Marvell thus:
Being passionately in Love (you may allow him to be an Allegorical Lover at least) with old Ioan (not the Chandlers, but Mr. Calvins Widow) walks discontentedly by the side of the Lake Lemane , sighing to the Winds and calling upon the Woods; not forgetting to report his Mistresses name so often, till he teach all the Eccho’s to repeat nothing but Ioan; now entertaining himself in his Solitude, with such little Sports, as loving his Love with an I, and then loving his Love with an O, and the like for the other Letters … after he has carv’d his Mistresses Name with many Love-knots and flourishes in all the Bushes and Brambles; and interwoven those sacred Characters with many an Enigmatical Devise in Posies and Garlands of Flowers, lolling sometimes upon the Bank and sunning himself, and then on a sudden (varying his Postures with his Passion) raising himself up, and speaking all the fine things which Lovers us’d to do. His Spirits at last exhal’d with the heat of his Passion, swop, he falls asleep, and snores out the rest.
Butler was attacking Marvell’s own objections to Samuel Parker’s high church ecclesiastical religious politics in his prose work The Rehearsal Transpros’d (1672), so the first part of the paragraph refers to Marvell’s association with the Calvinist nonconformists, John Owen in particular (the ‘old Ioan’ – ‘I’ ‘O’ – of the passage), and he walks alongside Lake Geneva, Geneva being the home of Jean Calvin and his version of the Reformation.
A more elusive, non-recorded character is hardly to be found. We know
all about him, but very little of him . . . the man Andrew Marvell
remains undiscovered. He rarely comes to the surface.
Augustine Birrell, Andrew Marvell (1905)
I . . . who haue no imployment but idlenesse and who am so oblivious that
I should forget mine own name did I not see it sometimes
in a friends superscription.
Marvell to Sir Henry Thompson (January 1674/5)
Authors from the past leave behind their literary works, but biographers need to construct their lives from other pieces of their life history evidence, apart from their poems, plays, novels or other kinds of writing. Works do of course function as life evidence, but without that other evidence, usually called documentary evidence because it is found in various types of historical document (records of birth, baptism, marriage, burial, property transactions, taxation accounts, and so on), the picture of a ‘real life’ would be impoverished. Letters, diaries and personal notebooks have an additional special status, because they are in a sense literary works too, and because they also record how the subject of a biography sees the world, or interacts with it. To have a large cache of letters is a gift for a biographer; it might be said that to engage in writing a life without such a collection is folly.
For someone whose reputation as a major poet depends almost entirely on retrospective construction in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, Andrew Marvell has a surprising amount to say about his own literary career. For someone who was consciously aware of the way in which others around him and just before him had sounded their own trumpets, proclaiming themselves latter-day Virgils, Ovids or Lucans, Marvell is remarkable for the degree to which he is able in his verse and his prose to speculate on his own career as a poet even while refusing the terms of aggrandizement claimed by his contemporaries. Jonson, Milton, Herrick, Cowley, Davenant and Katherine Philips all took pains to make their voices major, distinctive and above or beyond the tradition that had formed them. Marvell is a poet who denied this sense of poetic egotism by a form of studied imitation (echoing all of the people named above and many more) but who nonetheless made a virtue and indeed a highly creative resource of being other men's (and women's) mirrors.
I once said, and was pilloried for it, that Marvell was a ‘weak poet’ in this sense and of course it was meant in a Bloomian sense. He did not murder his father poets in order to find his own voice so much as echo them within his own voice, never letting the discerning reader forget about their distinctive identity.
Mark Scott and Nigel Smith provide the background to the development of Sweet & Maxwell's Legal Taxonomy before outlining its structure and explaining how it is used by Sweet & Maxwell and other Thomson Reuters companies.
Most of the works John Bunyan published in print, and indeed most of what he wrote, was compiled during the Restoration. This was a period with clear boundaries in English history, witnessing the return of the monarchy in the shape of the two sons of Charles I, first Charles II between 1660 and 1685 and then James II between 1685 and 1688. The shape of these regimes was particularly relevant to Bunyan since as a dissenter he suffered from the policies of religious discrimination that the government of each monarch adopted towards Protestant nonconformists, although James II favoured toleration of dissenters in order to gain the same for Roman Catholics. The pathetic end of James's reign in the Glorious Revolution, in the year of Bunyan's death, ensured greater freedom for dissenters and the end of the 'great persecution', but even before Charles's ascent to the throne in 1660 the twenty years of the 'Puritan Revolution' had seen advocates of the Baptist Calvinism for which Bunyan stood grow from a tiny and persecuted minority to become a flourishing community. The fortunes of the literary history of the Restoration fluctuate. Eighty years ago drama, much of it libertine in character, was the subject of much fascination. Three or four decades ago, a flourishing industry was devoted to reconstructing and restoring the texts, reputation and activities of John Dryden. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, however, the Restoration was largely eclipsed by the dazzle of the 1640s and 1650s, and study of major Restoration themes and authors dwindled significantly, with the possible exception of the study of Puritan literature.
Radiation damage effects in ceramics, e.g., nuclear waste forms, transmutation targets, and inert matrix fuels, may have important implications for the physical and chemical stability of these materials as the cumulative radiation dose increases over time. A key aspect of scientific research in this area is the ability to understand the fundamental damage mechanisms through the combination of experimental and atomistic modelling techniques. In this paper, we review some of the lessons learned from the significant body of data now available for pyrochlore-defect fluorite based materials, followed by an illustration of the advantages of working on simple compounds with well established interatomic potentials. We conclude the paper with a description of radiation damage processes in the LaxSr1-1.5xTiO3 defect perovskites, a system that includes phase transformations, short-range order effects, and complex defect behavior.