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Insights into the dynamics of electrochemical processes are critically needed to improve our fundamental understanding of electron, charge, and mass transfer mechanisms and reaction kinetics that influence a broad range of applications, from the functionality of electrical energy-storage and conversion devices (e.g., batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), to materials degradation issues (e.g., corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (e.g., electrodeposition). To unravel these processes, in situ electrochemical scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM) was developed to permit detailed site-specific characterization of evolving electrochemical processes that occur at electrode–electrolyte interfaces in their native electrolyte environment, in real time and at high-spatial resolution. This approach utilizes “closed-form” microfabricated electrochemical cells that couple the capability for quantitative electrochemical measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and diffraction. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art instrumentation for in situ ec-S/TEM and how this approach has resulted in new observations of electrochemical processes.
Globally, over 1.97 billion adults and 338 million children and adolescents are living with overweight and obesity, increasing the risk of numerous co-morbidities, including at least 12 cancers(1). WCRF/AICR conducted a literature review of diet and physical activity as determinants of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children. We also introduce a novel evidence-based policy framework for promoting physical activity, and linked database, currently in development as part of the EU-funded CO-CREATE project on child and adolescent obesity prevention.
Materials and Methods
Evidence on diet and physical activity as determinants and risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity was systematically extracted from existing reviews and a systematic search for recent meta-analyses, then collated and analysed. The WCRF Continuous Update Project Expert Panel drew conclusions about which exposures influence risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity, using pre-defined criteria that included evidence of biological plausibility.
The Panel identified strong evidence that several diet and physical activity related exposures influence the risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children (see table 1). Separate conclusions were drawn for adults and children in relation to screen time, considered a marker of sedentary time.
However, the Panel noted that as exposures tend to cluster, physiologically interact and share common biological mechanisms, they should not be regarded as absolutely ‘singular'but an integrated concept of interrelated exposures within a pattern of lifestyle.
Screen time (adults)‘Fast foods’‘Western type’ diet
For full list of footnotes, see Energy Balance and Body Fatness report(1).
Healthy dietary patterns help prevent excess weight gain. Achieving such patterns requires attention to the broader economic, environmental and social factors that influence and constrain people's behaviour. The findings of this report support the need for evidence-based public health policy to help create health-enabling environments, particularly for children and adolescents. The WCRF International MOVING framework(2) presents a package of policies to promote physical activity, which alongside wider public health policy can help address the multiple drivers of overweight and obesity.
Niuean (ISO 639-3 code niu) is a Polynesian language spoken on the island of Niue, with an additional population of speakers living in New Zealand. Figure 1 indicates where Niue is located with respect to other neighboring islands in the South Pacific. The 2011 Niue Census of Populations and Households cited the number of individuals who had either basic or fluent spoken abilities at 1121 (with 101 non-speakers) (Statistics Niue 2012). English is the second most widely used language on the island. The 2013 New Zealand census cited 4548 individuals living in New Zealand who listed Niuean as one of their languages (Statistics New Zealand 2013). Niuean is classified as ‘definitely endangered’ by UNESCO (Moseley 2010). There are historically two distinct dialects: the older Motu dialect from the northern area, and the more recent Tafiti from the southern area. These dialect differences were once reflected in slight phonological differences in vocabulary items, but the differences have since eroded in the modern language (see McEwen 1970: ix). Previous research on Niuean phonetics and phonology includes a brief outline in Seiter (1980: x), two dictionaries (McEwen 1970, Sperlich 1997), and an article on vowel length (Rolle & Starks 2014). While these works provide an overview of some of the phenomena to be addressed below, this sketch attempts a more thorough documentation of the phonetic structures of Niuean, and provides novel acoustic and articulatory data from the language. Recordings accompanying this paper are of a male speaker (Mr. Krypton Okesene) and a female speaker (the second author).