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A few empirically based studies' data on delusional disorder (DD) exist. We aim to describe sociodemographic and clinical correlates of DD and to identify clinical profiles associated to DD and its subtypes.
This is a case-register study based on all those subjects attending community mental health services within a geographically well-defined area. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients had been diagnosed as DD cases at psychiatric services serving a catchment area of some 607,494 inhabitants living in South Barcelona (Spain) during a three-year period (2001–2003). A thorough systematic review of computerised medical records was used to establish DSM-IV diagnosis, rendering a valid sample of 370 patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for DD. Independent variables gathered include sociodemographic data, family and personal psychiatric history, and comorbid diagnoses on all DSM-IV axes (including GAF). We used descriptive and univariate statistical methods to explore sample frequencies and correlates across DD types.
The mean age of the patients was 55 years and the sample had a mean GAF score of 51 suggesting a poor functionality; 56.5% of the patients were female. The most frequent DD types were persecutory (48%), jealous (11%), mixed (11%) and somatic (5%), whilst 23% qualified for the NOS type. Most frequent symptoms identified were self-reference (40%), irritability (30%), depressive mood (20%) and aggressiveness (15%). Hallucinations were present in 16% of the patients (6% tactile; 4% olfactory). Nearly 9% had a family history of schizophrenia (higher among those with the jealous subtype) and 42% had a comorbid axis II diagnosis (mostly paranoid personality disorder). Depression was significantly more frequent among the persecutory and jealous types. Finally, global functioning was significantly better among jealous and mixed types and worse amongst erotomanic and grandiose cases (p = 0.008).
In the absence of other similar empirical data, this modest study provides unique empirical evidence of some clinical and risk correlates of DD and its subtypes.
During the INDEMARES/CHICA 0610, 0211 and 0412 expeditions, carried out in the northern Spanish sector of the Gulf of Cádiz (Spain), samples were collected with a box-corer in 11 mud volcanoes and their adjacent bottoms. Chemoautotrophic communities were found in nine mud volcanoes. Among Decapoda, a rare eucalliacid, belonging to the genus Calliax and related to the Mediterranean infralittoral species C. lobata (de Gaillande and Lagardère 1966), was present in three of them. Data on its morphology, biogeographic distribution, vertical distribution within the burrows, sediment composition, pH and redox potential values (each in 5 cm intervals) are given; information on the chemoautotrophic communities associated with this species are also provided.
be a ring and
. In this paper, we give some characterizations of the
-inverse in terms of the direct sum decomposition, the annihilator, and the invertible elements. Moreover, elements with equal
-idempotents related to their
-inverses are characterized, and the reverse order rule for the
-inverse is considered.
The formation of massive stars remains one of the most intriguing questions in astrophysics today. The main limitations result from the difficulty to obtain direct observational constraints on the formation process itself. In this context, the Carina High-contrast Imaging Project of massive Stars (CHIPS) aims to observe all 80+ O stars in the Carina nebula using the new VLT 2nd-generation extreme-AO instrument SPHERE. This instrument offers unprecedented imaging contrast allowing us to detect the faintest companions around massive stars. These novel observational constraints will help to discriminate between the different formation scenarios by comparing their predictions for companion statistics and properties.
The composition and structure of sublittoral faunal assemblages inhabiting soft bottoms (15–72 m depth) within the Marine Protected Area ‘Acantilados y Fondos Marinos de Calahonda-Castell de Ferro’ in southern Spain (North Alboran Sea, Mediterranean) have been studied in relation to sediment and water column variables. Three assemblages were identified and corresponded to mixed bottom, unstable bottom and coastal detritic bottom assemblages, based on Pérès & Picard's (1964) benthic classification. A total of 14,318 individuals were collected and 218 species identified, molluscs being the best represented group (141 species). Species richness displayed significant differences with depth and transect, with the highest values observed in the medium to very fine sand and muddy bottoms with bioclasts located at the shallowest sampling stations. The presence of some rare and poorly known invertebrates that are scarce in other areas of the Mediterranean Sea is remarkable, such as the crustacean decapods Bythocaris cosmetops and Pagurus mbizi, Atlantic species with no records in the Mediterranean Sea, and the bathyal molluscs Poromya granulata and Alvania testae, collected at shallow depths. The spatial distribution of faunal assemblages was mainly related to depth and percentage of gravel and clay according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The geographic location of the area, the heterogeneity of soft bottoms and the presence of upwellings in the area may favour the high biodiversity found in the studied soft bottoms. This study increases the scarce knowledge of the circalittoral fauna of sedimentary habitats of the Alboran Sea, providing a baseline for the management of this interesting SCI and for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
Living specimens of the amphi-Atlantic asteroid Hacelia superba have been collected in different areas of Gazul mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz, south-western Iberian Peninsula, at depths of 380–487 m. This starfish displayed low abundances (~1 ind. 2000 m−2) in beam trawl catches on the mud vulcano and adjacent soft bottoms. The absence of previous records in this area could be due to a low sampling effort on bathyal hard bottoms of the Gulf of Cadiz, especially those of dormant mud volcanoes, as well as a possible misidentification as Hacelia attenuata that also occurs in the area but is restricted to infralittoral and circalitoral bottoms.
The taxonomy of pedunculate cirripedes belonging to the genus Pollicipes has essentially remained unchanged since Charles Darwin described them in his exhaustive work on the Cirripedia. This genus includes three species of stalked barnacles: Pollicipes pollicipes in the north-eastern Atlantic, P. polymerus in the north-eastern Pacific and P. elegans in the central-eastern Pacific. However, a population genetics analysis of P. pollicipes suggested the presence of a putative cryptic species collected from the Cape Verde Islands in the central-eastern Atlantic. This study examines the morphology of these genetically divergent specimens and compares them with that of representative Atlantic samples of the biogeographically closely related P. pollicipes and with the poorly described P. elegans. Molecular data, including mitochondrial COX1 and nuclear ribosomal interspaces sequences, were obtained for all species of the genus Pollicipes. Morphological distinctiveness, diagnostic characters, congruent divergence level and monophyletic clustering, at both nuclear and mitochondrial loci support the taxonomic status of this new species, Pollicipes darwini.
Hay pocos datos publicados de estudios empíricos sobre el trastorno delirante (TD). Intentamos describir las correlaciones sociodemográficas y clínicas del TD e identificar los perfiles clínicos asociados con el TD y sus subtipos.
Éste fue un estudio de registro de casos basado en todos los sujetos que acudían a los servicios de salud mental de la comunidad en un área geográficamente bien definida. Cuatrocientos sesenta y siete pacientes habían sido diagnosticados de TD en los servicios psiquiátricos de un área de 607.494 habitantes, aproximadamente, que vivían en el Sur de Barcelona (España) durante un período de tres años (2001-2003). Se hizo una revisión sistemática cuidadosa de historias médicas computarizadas para establecer el diagnóstico de DSM-IV, obteniéndose una muestra válida de 370 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de TD del DSM-IV. Las variables independientes recogidas fueron datos sociodemográficos, historia psiquiátrica personal y familiar, y diagnósticos de enfermedades coexistentes en todos los ejes del DSM-IV, incluido el GAF. Usamos métodos estadísticos descriptivos y univariantes para explorar las frecuencias de la muestra y las correlaciones a través de los tipos de TD.
La edad media de los pacientes era 55 años y la muestra tenía una puntuación media de GAF de 51 que indicaba baja funcionalidad; el 56,5% de los pacientes eran mujeres. Los tipos de TD más frecuentes eran persecutorio (48%), celotípico (11%), mixto (11%) y somático (5%), mientras que el 23% era del tipo no especificado (NOS). Los síntomas más frecuentes identificados fueron autorreferencia (40%), irritabilidad (30%), ánimo depresivo (20%) y agresividad (15%). Sufrían alucinaciones el 16% de los pacientes (el 6% táctiles; el 4% olfativas). Casi el 9% tenía antecedentes familiares de esquizofrenia (mayor en los del subtipo celotípico) y el 42% tenían otro diagnóstico coexistente del eje II (trastorno de personalidad, sobre todo, paranoide). La depresión era significativamente más frecuente en los tipos persecutorio y celotípico. Finalmente, el funcionamiento global era significativamente mejor en los tipos celotípicos y mixtos y peor en los tipos erotomaníaco y grandioso (p=0,008).
En ausencia de otros datos empíricos similares, este estudio limitado proporciona evidencias empíricas únicas de algunas correlaciones clínicas y de riesgo del TD y sus subtipos.
In this paper, the rings which have a torsion theory τ with associated torsion radical τ such that R/t(R) has a minimal τ-torsionfree cogenerator are studied. When τ is the trivial torsion theory these are precisely the left QF-3 rings. For τ = τL, the Lambek torsion theory, this class of rings is wider but, with an additional hypothesis on τL it is shown that if R has this property with respect to the Lambek torsion theory on both sides, then R is a (left and right) QF-3 ring. The results obtained are applied to get new characterizations of QF-3 rings with the ascending chain condition on left annihilators.
A ring R is called left QF-3 if it has a minimal faithful left R-module. The endomorphism ring of such a module has been recently studied in , where conditions are given for it to be a left PF ring or a QF ring. The object of the present paper is to study, more generally, when the endomorphism ring of a Σ-quasi-projective module over any ring R is left QF-3. Necessary and sufficient conditions for this to happen are given in Theorem 2. An useful concept in this investigation is that of a QF-3 module which has been introduced in . If M is a finitely generated quasi-projective module and σ[M] denotes the category of all modules isomorphic to submodules of modules generated by M, then we show that End(RM) is a left QF-3 ring if and only if the quotient module of M modulo its torsion submodule (in the torsion theory of σ[M] canonically defined by M) is a QF-3 module (Corollary 4). Finally, we apply these results to the study of the endomorphism ring of a minimal faithful R-module over a left QF-3 ring, extending some of the results of .
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