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Lack of social interaction, which is characteristically seen in people
with autistic-spectrum disorder, may be caused by malfunctioning of the
frontostriatal reward systems. However, no reported in
vivo brain imaging studies have investigated reward
mechanisms in autistic-spectrum disorder.
To investigate functional brain activation during reward feedback in
people with autistic-spectrum disorder and control individuals.
We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine
the neural substrates of monetary reward in individuals with
autistic-spectrum disorder and matched controls.
When rewarded, individuals with autism compared with control individuals
showed significantly greater brain activation in the left anterior
cingulate gyrus. In addition, activation of this region was negatively
correlated with social interaction as measured by the Autism Diagnostic
In people with autistic-spectrum disorder, achieving reward is associated
with significant differences in the activation of areas known to be
responsible for attention and arousal, and this may partially underpin
some deficits in social behaviour.
The feasibility of direct thin strip casting of various steel grades for
further metallic coating has been investigated. The surface evolution
is described for each processing step. Special attention to steel
cleanliness and scale formation was given, since local surface
heterogeneities of grain structure and chemical composition may
disturb the coating process. Low alloyed cast strip can be coated
with little to none difference to classical coating routes, however,
some highly alloyed steel grades require further optimization.
We studied the functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour in
velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) using a facial emotional processing task
and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults with this syndrome and
controls matched for age and IQ. The VCFS group had less activation in the
right insula and frontal brain regions and more activation in occipital
regions. Genetically determined abnormalities in pathways including those
involved in emotional processing may underlie deficits in social cognition
in people with VCFS.
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