Six patients with an aortoiliac vascular disease and a peripheral neurological deficit are presented. Clinical and electromyographic findings revealed lumbosacral plexus, sciatic and femoral nerve lesions. A correlation is made between the level of the vascular lesion (aortic, aortoiliac or distally) and the type of peripheral nerve deficit observed. In a patient complaining of pain, weakness, or numbness in a leg, the differential diagnosis should include aortoiliac vascular disease. The peripheral neurological symptoms may be the initial manifestation of the vascular disease or may appear in the early post-operative period.