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Tracing the flow of solid matter during an explosion requires a rugged tag that can be measured by a unique identifiable signature. Silica-covered semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) provide a unique and tunable photoluminescent signature that emits from within a sacrificial outer layer. Five types of silica-covered zinc sulfide QDs were synthesized and covalently bound to commercial luminescent powders. The combination of five dots and five powders enables a matrix of 25 unique tags. The tracers are shown to be tolerant of environments associated with chemical explosives and provides a unique tag to evaluate debris fields.
The criteria for objective memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are vaguely defined. Aggregating the number of abnormal memory scores (NAMS) is one way to operationalise memory impairment, which we hypothesised would predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia.
As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 896 older adults who did not have dementia were administered a psychometric battery including three neuropsychological tests of memory, yielding 10 indices of memory. We calculated the number of memory scores corresponding to z ≤ −1.5 (i.e., NAMS) for each participant. Incident diagnosis of AD dementia was established by consensus of an expert panel after 3 years.
Of the 722 (80.6%) participants who were followed up, 54 (7.5%) developed AD dementia. There was a strong correlation between NAMS and probability of developing AD dementia (r = .91, p = .0003). Each abnormal memory score conferred an additional 9.8% risk of progressing to AD dementia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for NAMS was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) .81–.93, p < .01]. The odds ratio for NAMS was 1.67 (95% CI 1.40–2.01, p < .01) after correcting for age, sex, education, estimated intelligence quotient, subjective memory complaint, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score and apolipoprotein E ϵ4 status.
Aggregation of abnormal memory scores may be a useful way of operationalising objective memory impairment, predicting incident AD dementia and providing prognostic stratification for individuals with MCI.
A single case of a patient suffering from a first psychotic episode and the differential diagnoses between affective and psychosis is performed throughout the combined use of peripheral serotonergic markers and clinical psychopathological scales during a 6-months follow-up. The results suggest the need of performing further studies combining biological and clinical markers of psychiatric disorders.
Alleles of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) and the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) genes were determined in 69 French Polynesian alcoholic patients and 57 controls matched for racial origin. Three racial groups were studied: pure Polynesians (PP), Polynesians mixed with Caucasian (PCA) ancestry and Polynesians mixed with Chinese (PCH) ancestry. DRD2 A1 allele frequencies in the alcoholics compared to their controls in these groups were: PP,.26 vs .32 (P = .69); PCA, .44 vs .35 (P = .46); PCH, .40 vs 0.39 (P = .88). ADH2 1 allele frequencies in alcoholics compared to their controls groups were: PP, .56 vs .62 (P = .66); PCA, .75 vs .56 (P = .09); PCH, .78 vs .32 (P = .009). In the PCA group, the combination of the DRD2 A1 genotypes and the ADH2 1 homozygotes was strongly associated with alcoholism (P = .0027). This preliminary study shows the importance of ascertaining racial ancestry in molecular genetic association studies. Moreover, it suggests that a combination of genes are involved in susceptibility to the development of alcoholism.
In recent years, the importance of the gut microbiota in human health has been revealed and many publications have highlighted its role as a key component of human physiology. Owing to the use of modern sequencing approaches, the characterisation of the microbiome in healthy individuals and in disease has demonstrated a disturbance of the microbiota, or dysbiosis, associated with pathological conditions. The microbiota establishes a symbiotic crosstalk with their host: commensal microbes benefit from the nutrient-rich environment provided by the gut and the microbiota produces hundreds of proteins and metabolites that modulate key functions of the host, including nutrient processing, maintenance of energy homoeostasis and immune system development. Many bacteria-derived metabolites originate from dietary sources. Among them, an important role has been attributed to the metabolites derived from the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibres, namely SCFA linking host nutrition to intestinal homoeostasis maintenance. SCFA are important fuels for intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and regulate IEC functions through different mechanisms to modulate their proliferation, differentiation as well as functions of subpopulations such as enteroendocrine cells, to impact gut motility and to strengthen the gut barrier functions as well as host metabolism. Recent findings show that SCFA, and in particular butyrate, also have important intestinal and immuno-modulatory functions. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and the impact of SCFA on gut functions and host immunity and consequently on human health.
Increased adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance are associated with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases (CM). Such deleterious phenotypes have been shown to be associated with a low gene-richness microbiota that can partly be restored by a short-term dietary intervention (energy-restricted high-protein diet, low glycemic index, enrichment with fibers) in parallel to an improvement of CM profile. In this study, we aimed at increasing fiber intake in quantity and diversity through a two-month consumption of bread enriched with a mix of selected fibers and evaluated the impact of this dietary intervention on gut microbiota gene richness and CM risk profile in subjects at risk of developing CM.
Materials and methods
In a randomized double blind cross-over design, thirty-nine subjects with CM risk profile (18–70 years old, BMI: 25–35 kg/m2, waist circumference > 80 cm for women and > 96 cm for men, fiber intake < 20g/day, low fiber diversity) consumed daily for 8 weeks 150 g of standard bread vs. 150 g of bread enriched with a 7-selected fibers mix (5.55 g vs. 16.35 g of fiber respectively; 4-week washout). Gut microbiota and CM risk factors’ analyzes were conducted before and after intervention. Stool samples were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics; microbial genes and metagenomics species (MSP) profiles were generated by mapping reads on a reference genes catalog (1529 MSP).
The included dyslipidemic subjects with CM risk profile presented a lower microbiota gene richness compared to reference healthy cohorts. The two-month consumption of fiber-rich bread did not alter microbiota gene richness but modified microbiota composition with a significant decrease of Bacteroides vulgatus (q = 1.7e-4) and a significant increase of Parabacteroides distasonis (q = 2.8e-6), Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (q = 5e-5) and Clostridiales (q = 3.8e-2). We observed in parallel a significant decrease in total cholesterol (- 0.26 mmol/L; - 5%; p = 0.021), LDL-cholesterol (- 0.2 mmol/L; - 6%, p = 0.0061) and an improvement of insulin sensibility estimated by HOMA index (3.23–2.54 mUI/L; - 21%; p = 0.0079).These effects were even significantly more pronounced for subjects presenting the higher waist circumference. Anthropometric parameters were not altered.
The enrichment of the diet with a mix of selected fibers for 2 months altered microbiota composition by modifying the relative abundance of specific gut bacterial species, in parallel to a significant improvement of cholesterol and insulin sensitivity parameters. Increasing the quantity and diversity of dietary fiber intake could be used as an efficient tool to favorably impact CM profile.
Standardization of solver input languages has been a main driver for the growth of several areas within knowledge representation and reasoning, fostering the exploitation in actual applications. In this document, we present the ASP-CORE-2 standard input language for Answer Set Programming, which has been adopted in ASP Competition events since 2013.
To assess the validity of multivariable models for predicting risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after colorectal surgery based on routinely collected data in national surveillance networks.
Retrospective analysis performed on 3 validation cohorts.
Colorectal surgery patients in Switzerland, France, and England, 2007–2017.
We determined calibration and discrimination (ie, area under the curve, AUC) of the COLA (contamination class, obesity, laparoscopy, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA]) multivariable risk model and the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) multivariable risk model in each cohort. A new score was constructed based on multivariable analysis of the Swiss cohort following colorectal surgery, then based on colon and rectal surgery separately.
We included 40,813 patients who had undergone elective or emergency colorectal surgery to validate the COLA score, 45,216 patients to validate the NHSN colon and rectal surgery risk models, and 46,320 patients in the construction of a new predictive model. The COLA score’s predictive ability was poor, with AUC values of 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–0.65), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.58–0.67), 0.60 (95% CI, 0.58–0.61) in the Swiss, French, and English cohorts, respectively. The NHSN colon-specific model (AUC, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.61–0.62) and the rectal surgery–specific model (AUC, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53–0.61) showed limited predictive ability. The new predictive score showed poor predictive accuracy for colorectal surgery overall (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.64–0.66), for colon surgery (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.65–0.66), and for rectal surgery (AUC, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.60–0.66).
Models based on routinely collected data in SSI surveillance networks poorly predict individual risk of SSI following colorectal surgery. Further models that include other more predictive variables could be developed and validated.
Decreases in Fe status have been reported in military women during initial training periods of 8–10 weeks. The present study aimed to characterise Fe status and associations with physical performance in female New Zealand Army recruits during a 16-week basic combat training (BCT) course. Fe status indicators – Hb, serum ferritin (sFer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin saturation (TS) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) – were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and end of BCT in seventy-six volunteers without Fe-deficiency non-anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb ≥120 g/l) or Fe-deficiency anaemia (sFer <12 µg/l; Hb <120 g/l) at baseline or a C-reactive protein >10 mg/l at baseline or end. A timed 2·4 km run followed by maximum press-ups were performed at baseline and midpoint (week 8) to assess physical performance. Changes in Fe status were investigated using paired t tests and associations between Fe status and physical performance evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. sFer (56·6 (sd 33·7) v. 38·4 (sd 23·8) µg/l) and TS (38·8 (sd 13·9) v. 34·4 (sd 11·5) %) decreased (P<0·001 and P=0·014, respectively), while sTfR (1·21 (sd 0·27) v. 1·39 (sd 0·35) mg/l) and RDW (12·8 (sd 0·6) v. 13·2 (sd 0·7) %) increased (P<0·001) from baseline to end. Hb (140·6 (sd 7·5) v. 142·9 (sd 7·9) g/l) increased (P=0·009) during BCT. At end, sTfR was positively (r 0·29, P=0·012) and TS inversely associated (r –0·32, P=0·005) with midpoint run time. There were no significant correlations between Fe status and press-ups. Storage and functional Fe parameters indicated a decline in Fe status in female recruits during BCT. Correlations between tissue-Fe indicators and run times suggest impaired aerobic fitness. Optimal Fe status appears paramount for enabling success in female recruits during military training.
To Investigate the peripheral inflammatory profile in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from three subgroups – probable Lewy body disease (probable MCI-LB), possible Lewy body disease, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (probable MCI-AD) – as well as associations with clinical features.
Memory clinics and dementia services.
Patients were classified based on clinical symptoms as probable MCI-LB (n = 38), possible MCI-LB (n = 18), and probable MCI-AD (n = 21). Healthy comparison subjects were recruited (n = 20).
Ten cytokines were analyzed from plasma samples: interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. C-reactive protein levels were investigated.
There was a higher level of IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-4 in MCI groups compared to the healthy comparison group (p < 0.0085). In exploratory analyses to understand these findings, the MC-AD group lower IL-1beta (p = 0.04), IL-2 (p = 0.009), and IL-4 (p = 0.012) were associated with increasing duration of memory symptoms, and in the probable MCI-LB group, lower levels of IL-1beta were associated with worsening motor severity (p = 0.002). In the possible MCI-LB, longer duration of memory symptoms was associated with lower levels of IL-1beta (p = 0.003) and IL-4 (p = 0.026).
There is increased peripheral inflammation in patients with MCI compared to healthy comparison subjects regardless of the MCI subtype. These possible associations with clinical features are consistent with other work showing that inflammation is increased in early disease but require replication. Such findings have importance for timing of putative therapeutic strategies aimed at lowering inflammation.
The medium-high mountain ranges of Western Europe are undergoing rapid socio-environmental changes. The aim of this study is to show that their landscape can be strongly shaped by the actions of avalanche activity, humans and climate. The study area is the Rothenbachkopf-Rainkopf complex, a site representative of avalanche-prone areas of the Vosges Mountains (France). A geo-historical approach documents regular avalanche activity over more than 200 years on 13 paths. A diachronic analysis of historical maps and photographs demonstrates substantial afforestation (from 60 to 80% of the total surface since 1832). LIDAR data and field surveys highlight the existence of a longitudinal and transversal structure of trees. Hence, the avalanche, human and climate activity footprints are retained by the landscape, which rapidly adapts to these changing drivers. Specifically, the pattern of tree species and heights results from a near equilibrium with regular avalanche activity sometimes disturbed by major avalanches that induce quasi-cyclic changes in the landscape mosaic. The afforestation trend is attributable to profound changes in silvo-pastoral practices, supplemented by the impact of climate change. The wider relevance of the results in relation to the local context is discussed, as well as outlooks that can refine our understanding of this complex system.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
In the UK, 11.8% of expectant mothers undergo an elective caesarean section (ELCS) representing 92 000 births per annum. It is not known to what extent this procedure has an impact on mental well-being in the longer term.
To determine the prevalence and postpartum progression of anxiety and depression symptoms in women undergoing ELCS in Wales.
Prevalence of depression and anxiety were determined in women at University Hospital Wales (2015–16; n = 308) through completion of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; ≥13) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; ≥40) questionnaires 1 day prior to ELCS, and three postpartum time points for 1 year. Maternal characteristics were determined from questionnaires and, where possible, confirmed from National Health Service maternity records.
Using these criteria the prevalence of reported depression symptoms was 14.3% (95% CI 10.9–18.3) 1 day prior to ELCS, 8.0% (95% CI 4.2–12.5) within 1 week, 8.7% (95% CI 4.2–13.8) at 10 weeks and 12.4% (95% CI 6.4–18.4) 1 year postpartum. Prevalence of reported anxiety symptoms was 27.3% (95% CI 22.5–32.4), 21.7% (95% CI 15.8–28.0), 25.3% (95% CI 18.5–32.7) and 35.1% (95% CI 26.3–44.2) at these same stages. Prenatal anxiety was not resolved after ELCS more than 1 year after delivery.
Women undergoing ELCS experience prolonged anxiety postpartum that merits focused clinical attention.
Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the effects of currently prescribed antiparkinson medication on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD) who were either cognitively intact or mildly impaired. Methods: English- and French-language studies published between 1969 and 2017 were accessed via MedLine, PsychNET, EMBASE and EBSCO databases. Methodological quality (MQ) was evaluated with the quality assessment instrument of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review (scores from 0% to 44% indicate very low quality; scores from 45% to 64% indicate low quality; scores from 65% to 84% indicate medium quality; and scores from 85% to 100% indicate high quality). Hedges’ g and Student’s t-test were performed on all cognitive outcome measures reported. Results: In total, 14 studies assessed the cognitive effects of levodopa (L-D), pramipexole (PRX), selegiline (SEL) and rasagiline (RAS) in mild-to-moderate non-demented PD patients. The MQ was overall low, with an average score of 49.1%. Results for L-D showed deleterious effects on a test of cognitive inhibition, as well as benefits on tests of attention/processing speed/working memory, executive functions and episodic memory. Pramipexole was associated with a worsening of episodic memory and impulse control. Results on SEL indicated a deterioration of global cognition over time and of concept formation. Rasagiline had some benefits on working memory and verbal fluency. Conclusion: Antiparkinson medications can have deleterious (L-D; PRX; SEL) and beneficial (L-D; RAS) effects on cognition. However, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials with larger sample sizes are required to better elucidate this issue.
Over the length of its current tenure, Punjab's Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) has sought to become more a socially inclusive party, more responsive to popular demands, and even to improve service delivery and eradicate corruption. However, despite these lofty goals, it has also presided over what people refer to as ‘goonda raj’—a rule of thugs—and has managed to alienate large sections of the population and, in the process, fuelled the rise of the anti-corruption Aam Admi Party in the state. In this article, based on ethnographic fieldwork in rural Malwa, I attempt to shed light on the roots of this contradiction. Is it simply the case, as ordinary people allege, that the SAD's claims are empty and that its members are merely interested in looting the state? Or, alternatively, is it the case that the party merely operates in accordance with Punjab's allegedly time-honoured tradition of rival factions competing to appropriate the spoils of power? I suggest instead that much of the corruption and violence observable at the village level in Punjab has its roots in the antagonistic relationship between the Congress Party and the Shiromani Akali Dal. It is this antagonism that appears to fuel the SAD's highly partisan form of government, and it is partisan government that appears to fuel the corruption and the village-level factional conflict that is documented in this article.
We discuss the cobordism type of spin manifolds with non-negative sectional curvature. We show that in each dimension 4k ⩾ 12, there are infinitely many cobordism types of simply connected and non-negatively curved spin manifolds. Moreover, we raise and analyse a question about possible cobordism obstructions to non-negative curvature.
The objectives of the study were to examine the trajectory of spirituality among older adults, to investigate the roles of gender and religion on the developmental trajectory of spirituality, and to explore whether the linear growth of spirituality accelerated or decelerated at time points at which the participants reported high scores of social support and flexibility.
A five-year longitudinal study.
The research used data from a longitudinal study, which follows a non-institutionalized older adults cohort of residents from France. The data used in this paper were collected at three time points (T1: 2007; T2: 2009; T3: 2012).
A total of 567 participants were included in the analysis (59.44% female; Mage = 75.90, SD = 5.12).
Multilevel growth curve analysis was used measuring spirituality, satisfaction with social support, and flexibility.
The results indicated the following: (1) stability of spirituality over time, (2) older women reported higher levels of spirituality than older men, and those who had a religion reported higher scores of spirituality than their counterparts who had no religion (these effects were strong and clinically meaningful), (3) older adults who reported higher levels of social support and flexibility also reported higher levels of spirituality, and (4) the slope of spirituality seemed to accelerate at time points at which participants also had higher levels of social support and flexibility (these effects were rather small but of theoretical interest).
The results of the present study help to improve the understanding of the potential benefit of encouraging the spiritual aspects of life.